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Index Cards . Name Email Where you are from favorite book Something interesting about yourself First political memory. Format of Class. Lecture outline on-line Not the University of Wisconsin The Socratic method, aka random terror Attendance Policy– 2 absences

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Index cards
Index Cards

  • Name

  • Email

  • Where you are from

  • favorite book

  • Something interesting about yourself

  • First political memory


Format of class
Format of Class

  • Lecture outline on-line

  • Not the University of Wisconsin

  • The Socratic method, aka random terror

  • Attendance Policy– 2 absences

  • Last one in, first one asked

  • I answer all cell phone calls


Readings
Readings

  • Fiorina and Peterson

  • Miroff, Debating Democracy

  • Fiorina Culture War?

  • Handouts

  • Subscribe to ABC’s The Note

  • Complete Reading Before Class


Requirements
Requirements

  • Two midterms

  • Research paper

  • Final exam

  • I have High Standards

  • Don’t Plagiarize


Nuts and bolts
Nuts and Bolts

  • I email early and often

  • Web page  syllabi, lecture notes, study questions, web assignments

  • Office hours 9:30-12 MW, Th 2-3, or whenever door is open

    • Don’t be a stranger!


Civic disengagement of college freshmen
Civic Disengagement of College Freshmen

  • 28.1% "keeping up to date with political affairs" 17.6% “influencing political structure”

  • 30.9% "becoming a community leader" was essential or very important

  • 73.4% "being very well off financially" is essential or very important

  • 27% "realistically, an individual can do little to bring about changes in our society."


Objectives of class
Objectives of Class

  • Institutional perspective

  • Critically evaluate government

  • To help make you better citizens

  • Introduction to political science as a major


American political thought
American Political Thought

  • Consent of governed

  • Separated Power- Locke

  • Taxation without representation

  • Distrust of centralized authority


Index cards


Articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation for a system of government.

  • No executive

  • Limited powers for Congress

    • no means of collecting revenue

  • Each state has one vote

  • Super-majority required to pass laws

  • WHY?


The articles deficiencies
The Articles’ Deficiencies for a system of government.

  • Limited trade among states

  • Radical Legislatures in PA and RI– paper $$

  • Increasing foreign threats

  • National government was TOO weak


Shay s rebellion
Shay’s Rebellion for a system of government.

  • Economic recession

  • Daniel Shay and poor farmers

  • Local courts and legislature

  • National government has no troops

  • Implications?


Constitutional convention
Constitutional Convention for a system of government.

The Scene at the Signing of the Constitution, oil painting (reproduction) by Howard Chandler Christy, 1940


Who were the framers
Who were the Framers? for a system of government.

  • The Framers "did not promote a new form of government to satisfy an abstract political theory. The framers were men of affairs who sought to advance their fortunes and careers as well as the interests of the states."


Challenges facing framers
Challenges facing Framers for a system of government.

  • create coalition of merchants and planters for new government

  • promote commerce/protect property

  • prevent excessive democracy

  • secure popular support

  • ensure government was not too strong to threaten individual’s liberties


Two main cleavages
Two Main Cleavages for a system of government.

  • Small states versus large states

  • North versus south on slavery


Great compromise
"Great Compromise" for a system of government.

  • Virginia Plan

  • New Jersey plan

  • Connecticut compromise

    • The House based on population

    • Senate treats each state equally


Scavenger hunt
Scavenger Hunt for a system of government.

  • What did the Constitution say about 3 slavery issues?

  • What are the exact words the Constitution uses to identify slaves in each of these sections


Why the 3 5ths compromise
Why the 3/5ths Compromise? for a system of government.

  • 5 states in South, 8 in North

  • Slaves are 30% of population in South

  • slaves count as 3/5 of a person for the purposes of representation in the House of Representatives

  • Slave trade and runaway slaves

  • Indelible stain on the constitution


Constitutional scavenger hunt
Constitutional Scavenger Hunt for a system of government.

  • Where must bills for raising revenue originate?

  • Of the enumerated powers granted to Congress in Article I, Section 8, how many would you classify as economic/ commercial, political, military, or other?

  • Can Senate expel Hilary?

  • The original Constitution explicitly mentions only 1 “Right”. What is it?


Congress
Congress for a system of government.

  • Most Powerful Branch; Article 1

  • Selection

  • Expressed Powers


Legislative assessment
Legislative Assessment for a system of government.

  • create coalition of merchants and planters

  • promote commerce/protect property

  • prevent excessive democracy

  • secure popular support


Constitutional scavenger
Constitutional Scavenger for a system of government.

  • What is the standard for removing the president from office?

  • 8. How is the president chosen? How are electors chosen?

  • How do presidential powers compare to legislative powers?


Prevent excessive democracy
Prevent Excessive Democracy for a system of government.

  • How is the president chosen? How are electors chosen?

  • What is the constitutional criteria for removing a president from office?


President or executive branch
President or Executive Branch for a system of government.

  • How to elect the presidents

  • Compromise- Electoral College

    • States receive number of electoral votes equal to representation in Congress.

    • if no one gets majorities, House of Representatives gets to choose president, one vote per state.


Powers of president
Powers of President for a system of government.

  • Article 2, 300 words only

  • Veto legislation, commander in chief,

  • power to grant reprieves and pardons, make treaties, appoint ambassadors, public ministers, judges and all other office of US, receive ambassadors

  • give Congress information of the State of the Union, recommend such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient, adjourn them if proper

  • take care all laws be faithfully executed

  • the executive power shall be vested in a President


Analysis
Analysis for a system of government.

  • Framers wanted a strong, but not too strong President

    • Need executive to impart energy to national government make timely decisions

    • Scared about national mandate


Scavenger hunt1
Scavenger Hunt for a system of government.

  • Does the Constitution give the Supreme Court the power of judicial review?


Judiciary article iii
Judiciary, Article III for a system of government.

  • President appoints judges with the advice and consent of the Senate

  • Supreme law of land


Assessment
Assessment for a system of government.

  • Strong national government

  • Ensures ratification with no mention of judicial review


Scavenger hunt2
Scavenger Hunt for a system of government.

  • What do Article I, Section 10, Article VI and Amendment X state about the relationship of the federal government and the states?

  • Comparison with Articles of Confederation?


Administrative details
Administrative Details for a system of government.

  • Handouts for Monday

  • 2 thought questions:

    • Whose interpretation of the constitution seems most plausible (Roche, Beard, or Diamond)?

    • What 2 constitutional amendments should we have?


Scavenger hunt3
Scavenger Hunt for a system of government.

  • What does the Constitution or any of its amendments say about income taxes?

  • What does the Constitution or any of its amendments say about “intoxicating liquors”?


State constitutions
State Constitutions for a system of government.

  • The legislature may provide for an indem-nification program to peanut farmers for losses incurred as a result of Aspergillums flavus and freeze damage in peanuts. Alabama, 1901.

  • The people hereby enact limitations on marine net fishing in Florida waters to protect saltwater finfish, shellfish, and other marine animals from unnecessary killing, over fishing and waster. Florida, 1968


Scavenger hunt4
Scavenger Hunt for a system of government.

  • Can a person who has engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the United States be elected as a Senator or Representative in Congress or hold any office in the federal or state government? How is such a disability removed? Any ideas why Congress passed this amendment?


Scavenger hunt5
Scavenger Hunt for a system of government.

  • Which groups or individuals have gained the right to vote via an amendment to the Constitution?


Scavenger hunt6
Scavenger Hunt for a system of government.

  • What section of the Constitution states that “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness?

  • What is the one right mentioned in Constitution?


Ratifying the constitution
Ratifying the Constitution for a system of government.

  • approved by at least nine states

  • approved at ratifying convention

  • Not state legislatures or popular vote

  • Debate between federalists and anti-federalists

  • Needed the big states


Federalists vs anti federalists
Federalists vs. Anti-federalists for a system of government.

  • Madison (#10) v. Brutus

  • Is democracy best served in large or small republics?

  • Who is likely to be elected?

  • What is the greatest danger to democracy?


Madison federalist 10
Madison- Federalist 10 for a system of government.

  • Latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man.

  • “the most common and durable source of faction has been the various and unequal distribution of property” p. 18

  • Pure democracy has no cure for the mischiefs of faction

  • Incompatible with personal security or the rights of property. P. 20


Madison s solution
Madison’s Solution for a system of government.

  • Republican government to refine and enlarge the public views

  • Liberty is safest in large (extended) republics

  • many opinions and interests in large republic makes it harder for a tyrannical majority to form

  • coalition formed in large republic are more moderate

  • Liberty is threatened more by public passions and popular factions than by strong government


Brutus s reply
Brutus’s Reply for a system of government.

  • In a republic, the manners, sentiments, and interest of the persons should be similar (or else) constant clashing of opinions

  • In a large republic “the people would be acquainted with very few of their rules, the people at large would know little of their proceedings, and it would be extremely difficult to change them. The consequence will be, they will have no confidence in their legislature, suspect them of ambitious views, be jealous of every measure they adopt, and will not support the laws they pass.”


Anti federalists
Anti-federalists for a system of government.

  • small republic is best

  • People are animated by a concern for public good

  • strong national government would be distant from the people


Madison federal 51
Madison, Federal #51 for a system of government.

  • Is a large republic enough to prevent tyranny of the majority?


Federalist 51 madison
Federalist #51, Madison for a system of government.

  • Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. If men were angels, no govt would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on govt would be necessary

  • In framing a govt which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the govt to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.


Separation of powers
Separation of Powers for a system of government.

  • Madison- accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary in the same hands, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny.

  • Legislature makes laws, executive administers, and judiciary interprets

  • BUT Separation is not enough.


Checks and balances
Checks and Balances for a system of government.

  • #51, Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. The interest of the man must be connected with the constitutional rights of the place.


Different bases of support
Different Bases of Support for a system of government.

  • House of Representatives= only directly elected officials; every two years

  • Senate= every six years; are selected by State legislatures until 1913

  • President= selected by electoral college; state legislatures; no popular vote

  • Judiciary= appointed by President, confirmed by Senate. Life-time appointment


Checks and balances1
Checks and Balances for a system of government.

  • President can nominate judges; propose, veto laws, appeal to public

  • Congress- approves budget, impeach president and judges, determine number and jurisdiction of courts, Senate confirms judges

  • Courts- can declare executive actions and laws unconstitutional.


Comparison with uk
Comparison with UK for a system of government.

  • Prime minister chosen by majority party.

  • No judicial review

  • control and responsibility concentrated in legislature

  • Same electoral base

  • No checks and balances


Consequences
Consequences for a system of government.

  • GRIDLOCK!

  • difficult to act unless there is overwhelming sustained consensus about course of action.

  • 1994 GOP Revolution

  • Flag burning

  • Losers-- Efficiency and accountability


Separation of powers1
Separation of Powers for a system of government.

  • Limit the power of government

  • Limit democratic majoritarianism (aka Tyranny of the Majority)

  • Policy should not reflect majority public opinion


American political thought1
American Political Thought for a system of government.

  • Consent of governed

  • Separated Power- Locke

  • Taxation without representation

  • Distrust of centralized authority


Index cards


Administrative details1
Administrative Details for a system of government.

  • Are you on the email list?

    • intro-spring05-list

    • ABC’s The Note

  • Readings for Friday

    • James Madison, The Federalist, Nos. 51 and 46

    • Anti-federalist, Brutus

  • Debate over Ratifying the Constitution

    • A-L, Federalists

    • M-Z, Anti-Federalists