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Introduction to the latest trends in 3 rd cycle studies in Europe

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  1. Introduction to the latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner Head of Center for Doctoral Studies Seminar: Promotion of Doctoral Studies 11 – 12 March 2010, Mostar, BiH

  2. Synopsis • Doctoral Education in the European context • Doctoral Education: Opportunities for Universities • Trends • Structuring Doctoral Education • Admissions and Recruitment • Supervision, a collective process • Transferable Skills Development • Quality Assurance Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  3. Doctoral Education in the European context • The Salzburg principles drew up in 2005 the new vision of doctoral education in Europe. They arose from an intensive bottom-up work from European universities developed under the auspices of EUA (2004-2005). • Bergen Communiqué (2005): explicitly recognised the special ‘dual’ status of doctoral candidates as both students and first-stage researchers. • EUA Project 2: Doctoral Programmes in Europe (2005 –2007, Nice conference 2006, Report 2007) • Lausanne June 2008: EUA Council for Doctoral Education Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  4. Doctoral Education in the European context • Doctoral education - main link between the EHEA and ERA • Doctoral education in Europe – in a process of major transformation • Drivers of change: • challenges of the fast growing global competition and changing labor market • policy objectives of the EU (especially ambitious Lisbon objectives, ERA Green Paper, Modernization Agenda for universities) • Bologna Process Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  5. Doctoral Education: Opportunities for Universities • The building of a knowledge (innovation)-driveneconomy (Lisbonstrategy), and the need for a knowledge-based society in the broadestsense • Need for more research and new research practices to address the complexity and interdependence of the problems to face • An increasedstrategicrole for universities as keyactors of researchand in training highlyqualified and educatedprofessionalworkers (World Bank, OECD, EU…) Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  6. An increased strategic role for universities • as keyactors of research • in extending the frontiers of knowledge • in transferingknowledgeinto new products and services: innovation • in training highlyqualified and educatedprofessionalworkers by givingstudentskeycompetences,skills and vocational guidance • in educatingcitizens … and an increasedresponsibility • knowledgeis and must remain a universal public good • research, knowledge and innovation are not identical • the need for an innovation-driveneconomy and for the transfer of knowledgeinto innovation does not imply an innovation-drivenresearch, a fortiori a market-drivenresearch: resultscannotbeordered or preset Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  7. A key issue: promote the added value of doctorate • Doctorate: development of creativethinking by training throughresearch and maturing of competences and personality:facing the unknown - extendingknowledge - quicklyextracting and synthezisingknowledge - elaboratinginnovative solutions to solvecomplexproblems - developingstrategies by combiningvaried perspectives - networking – communicating - quality, time and resources management - failure management • An increasingneed for thesecompetences in all sectors and regions • Directlylinked to the employability of doctorateholders for academic as well as non-academic, research or non-researchcarreers Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  8. The Doctorate: based on research, not teaching • The Salzburg principles stressed the specificity of the doctoral level as learning through the practice of an original research project, bridging the ERA and EHEA. • For this reason, doctorate is by nature different form the first and second cycles, even though doctoral education has been part of the Bologna process from the 2003 Berlin Communiqué. • As a consequence, the format and assessment tools developed through the Bologna process for the two first cycles are not appropriate at the doctoral level. Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  9. Trends : Structuring Doctoral Education Trend towards structured programs and doctoral/ research/ graduate schools: independent organizational units, effective administration, strong leadership, specific funding, providing transferable skills development support, often organized around a discipline or research theme and may involve several institutions Aim: to achieve critical mass, stimulate research environment, enhance interdisciplinarity and interinstitutional collaboration, improve quality while keeping diversity. However, reform of doctoral education cannot be reduced to the introduction of more taught elements, skills provision, even more credit systems. These are all subordinated to the development of a dynamic research environment where the doctoral candidates take part as early stage researchers. Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  10. Trends : Admissions and Recruitment • Structured programmes should develop recruitment strategies that correspond to their particular mission and profile. • Sustainable financial means to recruit candidates would improve the competitiveness of European doctoral education • Admission to a doctoral programme is an institutional responsibility with a strong involvement of staff • Policies must be transparent and accountable and should reflect the research, supervisory and financial capacity of the institution. Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  11. Trends : Supervision, a collective process The crucial role of supervision and assessment: In respect of individual doctoral candidates, arrangements for supervision and assessment should be based on a transparent contractual framework of shared responsibilities between doctoral candidates, supervisors and the institution. • Multiple and more transparent supervision encouraged • Increased need for professional development for supervisors • Development ofCode ofGood Practice for Supervision • A crucial role for the supervisor(s): • the research project is the core component of the doctorate • regular mentoring and counselling to favour the development of critical mind, creativity and autonomy Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  12. Trends : Transferable Skills Development • Transferable skills and competence training should be an integral part of all cycles, the aim at the third cycle: to raiseawareness among doctoral candidates of the importance of recognizing and enhancing the skills that they develop and acquire through research, as a means of improving their career development inside & outside academia. • Skills and competences are developed through the realisation of an original research project. • Provision of skills must be thought as to expose early stage researchers to a wide range of opportunities to define their career choices. Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  13. Trends : Transferable Skills Development • Adequate funding of transferable skills training – crucial • Teaching transferable skills should be recognized in evaluation of academic staff involved • However, they cannot be mastered by only taking courses, and ECTS are not appropriate for individual assessment of personal development. Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  14. Trends : Quality Assurance Existing methodologies of QA not easily applicable in doctoral education • It is necessary to develop specific systems for QA in doctoral education based on the diverse institutional missions and, crucially, linked to the institutional research strategy. • Assessment of the academic quality of doctoral education should be carried out in the context of the standards of the international research community, and be sensitive to disciplinary differences. • Institutions should develop indicators such as individual progression, net research time, career tracking and dissemination of research results, taking into consideration the development of the researcher as well as the development of the dissertation. Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  15. Selected References Frans van Vught (2009), The EU Innovation Agenda:Challenges for European Higher Education and Research, Higher Education Management and Policy, Volume 21/2 Bergen Communiqué (2005): The European Higher Education Area -Achieving the Goals London Communiqué (2007): Towards the European Higher Education Area: responding to challenges in a globalised world David Boud and Alison Lee (Eds) , Changing Practices of Doctoral Education , Routledge Chapman & Hall , 2008 J. Chambaz, A. Bitusikova and T. Jørgensen: various personal communication and EUA-CDE Workshops (London 2009, Lausanne 2009, Vienna 2009, Zagreb 2009, Aarhus 2010, Bonn 2010) Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010

  16. Thank you for your attention! Contact Lucas Zinner University of Vienna E: lucas.zinner@univie.ac.at W: http://doktorat.univie.ac.at Latest trends in 3rd cycle studies in Europe Lucas Zinner, Mostar, 11 March 2010