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Ch. 5 & 6- Flowers & Fruits. Angiosperms (flowering plants). Unique among plants because they have sexual reproductive structures contained in a flower derived from modified leaves seeds form inside fleshy fruit pollinated by insects or other animals.

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Presentation Transcript
angiosperms flowering plants
Angiosperms (flowering plants)
  • Unique among plants because they have sexual reproductive structures contained in a flower
    • derived from modified leaves
  • seeds form inside fleshy fruit
  • pollinated by insects or other animals

Fruit as an adaptation for seed dispersal: Red berries and dandelion

flower arrangements
Flower arrangements
  • Perfect: both stamens & carpels
  • Imperfect: missing either stamens or carpels
    • Monoecious: both male & female flowers on same plant
    • Dioecious: male & female flowers on separate plants

female

male

Embryo sac  fruit

seed 

The structure of a flower

pollination
Pollination
  • place pollen onto stigma of a carpel
  • pollination agents
    • grasses, many trees: wind
    • many angiosperms: animals, including insects
    • self-pollination

A relationship between an angiosperm and its pollinator: Hummingbird and flower (left); bee and Scotch broom (right)

how do flowers attract the pollinator of choice
How do flowers attract the pollinator of choice?
  • Insect: bright, showy petals with fragrant aromas, rich in nectar
    • E.g.: moths=white, night; flies=“smelly”
  • Hummingbird: bright, often red, no aroma
  • Wind: small and inconspicuous with copious production of dry, lightweight pollen
fruits
Fruits
  • What is a fruit?
  • What are the purpose of fruit?
  • How is a fruit formed?
fruit mature ovary purpose protects seeds dispersal aid
Fruit = “mature ovary”purpose: protects seeds, dispersal aid

Relationship between a pea flower and a fruit (pea pod)

fruit or vegetable
Fruit or vegetable?
  • botanical:
    • Ripened ovary
  • Legal
    • Something that tastes sweet and is eaten as dessert
types of fruits
Types of Fruits
  • Dry fruits: Tough or papery pericarp
  • Fleshy fruits: Soft and juicy pericarp
    • Drupe
    • Berry
    • Aggregate
    • Multiple
    • Accessory
development of fruit from flower
Development of fruit from flower
  • drupe
  • berry
  • simple = 1 ovary of 1 flower
    • e.g., cherry, soybean pod
  • compound = multiple ovaries
    • aggregate = of one flower
      • e.g., raspberry, blackberry
    • multiple = of many flowers (inflorescence)
      • e.g., pineapple
  • accessory = parts other than ovary
    • e.g., strawberry, apple, melon, tomato
seeds
Seeds
  • Contain embryonic plant plus nutritive tissue & tough outer coat
  • Starting point for next generation
cotyledons embryonic leaves
Cotyledons (embryonic leaves)
  • Single cotyledon = monocot
  • Two large cotyledons = dicot
  • Cotyledons can be “fleshy” or “leafy”
  • Cotyledons can be kept belowground or elevated above ground
seed germination
Seed Germination
  • imbibition: absorption of water
  • mobilization of food reserves
    • enzyme activity digests endosperm (converts starch to sugar)
seed germination48
Seed Germination
  • emergence of radicle
    • detects gravity & grows downward
  • epicotyl emerges through soil surface
  • light cues upward & straighter growth
slide49

Fig. 40.1

With light:

Green

Shorter

Open cotyledons

Straight stem

Without light:

Yellow

Elongated

Closed cotyledons

Hooked stem