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  1. Flowers

  2. Pollination syndromes among the phloxes

  3. Butterfly and Moth Pollination • Butterfly and moth flowers similar to bee flowers because moths and butterflies also guided to flowers by combination of sight and smell • Some butterflies can see red, so often have red or orange color for flower • Nectary is often at bottom of long, slender corolla tube or a nectar spur - only accessible to long sucking probocis of moths and butterflies • Nectar is copious, but not so concentrated - often 25% sugar • Moths are nocturnal so many of their flowers emit heavy fragrance at night, often pale or white in color - scent is sweet and penetrating

  4. Erysimum – butterfly pollinated

  5. Episcia – moth pollinated

  6. Bird Pollination • Bird pollinated flowers produce copious, thin nectar - often about 25% sugar, often very high in sucrose - may actually drip with nectar • Usually have little odor because birds have poor sense of smell • Birds see red and bird pollinated flowers often very colorful with reds and yellows - red columbine, fuchsia, passion flower, hibicus, poinsettia, many cactus and orchids • The flowers are usually large or part of large inflorescence • Nectar usually held in long tubes that other animals can’t reach

  7. Hummingbird pollination

  8. Ipomopsis aggregata – hummingbird pollinated

  9. Greater double-collared sunbird

  10. Proteus – pollinated by perching birds

  11. Bat Pollination • About 250 species of bat (25% of all bats) include some pollen, nectar or fruit in their diet - many pollinate flowers as part of their feeding • Bat flowers are similar to bird flowers - large, strong flower which produces copious nectar - Often dull colored because open at night - may only open at night • Often have very strong fermenting or fruitlike odors, may be musky odors too • Bat flowers often hang down below foliage to enable bats to easily get to the flower • Banana, mango, sisal and kapok flowers pollinated by bats

  12. Bat pollination

  13. Wind Pollination • Usually have dull colors, relatively odorless, do not produce nectar, petals small or absent, sexes often separated • Wind pollinated flowers are most common in temperate areas where large stands of single species of plant occur • With trees, wind pollination occurs in spring before leaves have emerged - usually have well exposed stamens to shed pollen to wind and stigma also exposed - often with feathery outgrowths to catch pollen • Often the plants have various mechanisms to promote out-crossing - separate sexes - dioecious - willows, poplars • unisexual flowers on same tree - monoecious - oaks, birches • Self-incompatible - grasses • Flowers are typically small, have single ovule per flower - however have many flowers borne in inflorescences and multiple inflorescences

  14. Box elder – wind pollinated – female left, male right

  15. Wild Oats – Avena fatua

  16. Wild oat flower – close up

  17. Cottonwood Catkins Male Female

  18. Why Pollination?

  19. Why Pollination? • Plants engage in pollination in order to ensure successful sexual reproduction • Then – Why Sex? • The benefits of sexual reproduction are that it enables the introduction of novel genetic combinations of DNA • This creates potential for plants to develop new genetic combinations which may allow increased survival, reproduction and thus fitness – producing more offspring

  20. Sexual reproduction introduces variation via three steps: 1. meiosis forms haploid cells with different combinations of chromosomes 2. genetic recombination occurs during meiosis via crossing over 3. fusion of gametes (eggs and sperm) from haploid cells to form new zygote

  21. Pollination in Plant Breeding

  22. Double Fertilization • At double fertilization, several processes are initiated: • the primary endosperm nucleus divides forming the endosperm; • the zygote develops into the embryo; • the integuments develop into the seed coat; • the ovary and related structures develop into the fruit

  23. Embryo Development • Early embryo development is similar in dicots and monocots - at first the embryo is a spherical body - however, differences appear when the cotyledons develop - the dicot has two cotyledons and the monocot has one cotyledon

  24. Endosperm and Cotyledons • The primary endosperm nucleus divides mitotically to form the endosperm - the endosperm tissue will provide food to the developing embryo and in many cases, to the young seedling too • In many dicots and some monocots, the endosperm tissues are absorbed by the developing embryo before the seed becomes dormant - then the nutrition is stored in the cotyledons - peas, beans

  25. Gymnosperm Seeds • In gymnosperms like this pine, the food for the seed comes from maternal tissue (the gametophyte)

  26. Ovary and Ovule Development • As the ovule develops into the seed, the ovary develops into the fruit • As this happens the ovary wall thickens to form a pericarp - the pericarp often has distinct layers - exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp or just exocarp and endocarp - the layers are easiest to see on fleshy fruits

  27. Fruit Layers 1. Endocarp 2. Seed 3. Mesocarp 4. Exocarp 1, 3, and 4 together makeup the pericarp.

  28. Fruits • A fruit may be defined as a matured ovary. In some plants the fruit may include other flower parts that are fused to the ovary. True fruits develop from a single pistil. A flower with one or more simple pistils produces a corresponding number of fruits. A compound pistil develops into one fruit but may split at maturity into a number of pieces that often corresponds to the number of carpels in the pistil (like a blackberry or pineapple).

  29. Note: D should be Samara; E should be Achene

  30. Note – missing Pepo and hesperidium

  31. Apples and Pears

  32. Strawberry – flower and fruit

  33. Seed Dispersal

  34. Seed Dispersal Distances

  35. Animal Seed Dispersal Shimba Hills, Kenya

  36. Seed Dispersal by Wind

  37. Seed Dispersal by Water - Coconut

  38. Seed Dispersal by Self Poppy – shaking in breeze Explosive

  39. Hitch-hiking

  40. Human Seed Dispersal