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  1. Balancing Rations Topic 3049 Rations Melinda Klockziem

  2. Roughages • Roughages • 18% or more Fiber • Hard to Digest • Two types • Legumes • NonLegumes

  3. Roughages • Legumes • Plants that have root nodules (lumps) that contain bacteria that fix nitrogen from the air in soil. • Clover and Alfalfa • Nonlegumes • Plants that can not fix nitrogen from the air in soil • Grasses, and corn stalks.

  4. Roughages • Ruminants can use more roughages than nonruminants. • Younger ruminants cannot use as much roughage as older ruminants

  5. Concentrates • Protein Concentrates • More than 20% Protein • Animal Protein • Meat meal, egg, milk product, bone meal • Vegetable Protein • Soybean meal (legume), distiller grains

  6. Concentrates • Carbohydrate Concentrates • Less than 20% Protein • Grains • Corn, sorghum, oats, wheat, dried beet pulp

  7. Ration Characteristics • Ration • Amount of Feed given to an animal to meet its needs in 24 hours. • Balanced Ration • Provides the nutrient needs of the animal in the proper proportions.

  8. Balanced Ration • Must be: • palatable • meet nutritional requirements of animal • nonharmful • economical http://ansci.colostate.edu/dep/ardec/bryce13.jpg

  9. Ration Functions • Maintenance • Maintaining life • ½ of the ration is used for maintenance • Growth • After maintenance needs are met, then the ration is used for growth

  10. Ration Functions • Fattening • Nutrients not used for maintenance or growth • Stored in the tissues of the body • Fat stored in muscle is called marbling • Production • Cows, swine, horses, sheep, and goats • Require special nutrients • Examples: • Produce milk to feed their young • Dairy Animals ( for human use)

  11. Ration Functions • Reproduction • Extremely important for pregnant animals • May become sterile it does not get adequate level of nutrition. • Work • Requires increased energy • Horse and Oxen • Pulling, driving, riding

  12. Pearson Square • Is a useful tool for simplifying the balancing of rations • It shows the proportions or percentages of two feeds to be mixed together to give a percent of the needed nutrient.

  13. Reference • Modern Livestock and Poultry Production • 6th Edition • James R. Gillespie • Delmar Publishing