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Balancing Rations. Topic 3049 Rations Melinda Klockziem. Roughages . Roughages 18% or more Fiber Hard to Digest Two types Legumes NonLegumes. Roughages. Legumes Plants that have root nodules (lumps) that contain bacteria that fix nitrogen from the air in soil. Clover and Alfalfa

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balancing rations

Balancing Rations

Topic 3049

Rations

Melinda Klockziem

roughages
Roughages
  • Roughages
    • 18% or more Fiber
    • Hard to Digest
    • Two types
      • Legumes
      • NonLegumes
roughages3
Roughages
  • Legumes
    • Plants that have root nodules (lumps) that contain bacteria that fix nitrogen from the air in soil.
      • Clover and Alfalfa
  • Nonlegumes
    • Plants that can not fix nitrogen from the air in soil
      • Grasses, and corn stalks.
roughages4
Roughages
  • Ruminants can use more roughages than nonruminants.
  • Younger ruminants cannot use as much roughage as older ruminants
concentrates
Concentrates
  • Protein Concentrates
    • More than 20% Protein
    • Animal Protein
      • Meat meal, egg, milk product, bone meal
    • Vegetable Protein
      • Soybean meal (legume), distiller grains
concentrates6
Concentrates
  • Carbohydrate Concentrates
    • Less than 20% Protein
    • Grains
      • Corn, sorghum, oats, wheat, dried beet pulp
ration characteristics
Ration Characteristics
  • Ration
    • Amount of Feed given to an animal to meet its needs in 24 hours.
  • Balanced Ration
    • Provides the nutrient needs of the animal in the proper proportions.
balanced ration
Balanced Ration
  • Must be:
    • palatable
    • meet nutritional requirements of animal
    • nonharmful
    • economical

http://ansci.colostate.edu/dep/ardec/bryce13.jpg

ration functions
Ration Functions
  • Maintenance
    • Maintaining life
    • ½ of the ration is used for maintenance
  • Growth
    • After maintenance needs are met, then the ration is used for growth
ration functions10
Ration Functions
  • Fattening
    • Nutrients not used for maintenance or growth
    • Stored in the tissues of the body
    • Fat stored in muscle is called marbling
  • Production
    • Cows, swine, horses, sheep, and goats
    • Require special nutrients
      • Examples:
      • Produce milk to feed their young
      • Dairy Animals ( for human use)
ration functions11
Ration Functions
  • Reproduction
    • Extremely important for pregnant animals
    • May become sterile it does not get adequate level of nutrition.
  • Work
    • Requires increased energy
    • Horse and Oxen
      • Pulling, driving, riding
pearson square
Pearson Square
  • Is a useful tool for simplifying the balancing of rations
  • It shows the proportions or percentages of two feeds to be mixed together to give a percent of the needed nutrient.
reference
Reference
  • Modern Livestock and Poultry Production
    • 6th Edition
    • James R. Gillespie
    • Delmar Publishing