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  1. Mark Rothko Mark Rothko’s career that spanned five decades and he created a new and impassioned form of abstract painting. Rothko's work is characterized by rigorous attention to formal elements such as color, shape, balance, depth, composition, and scale.

  2. Piet Mondrian The Dutch artist Piet Mondrian was a pioneer in this development. Each painting was worked and reworked, built layer by layer toward an equilibrium of form, color, and surface. Mondrian named his style “neoplasticism."

  3. Thomas Kinkade Thomas Kinkade is America's most collected living artist. Coming from a modest background, Kinkade emphasizes simple pleasures and inspirational messages through his paintings. As a devout Christian, Kinkade uses his gift as a vehicle to communicate and spread inherent life-affirming values.

  4. Claude Monet Claude Monet is generally considered to be the most outstanding figure among Impressionists. The term Impressionism derives from his picture Impression: Sunrise. A title was needed in a hurry, Monet suggested simply Impression, and the catalogue editor added an explanatory Sunrise.

  5. Vincent Van Gogh Vincent van Gogh was a Dutch painter, classified as a Post-impressionist, and is generally considered one of the greatest painters in the history of European art. His work shows the objects, people and places in his life with bold, usually distorted, draughtsmanship and visible dotted or dashed brush marks.

  6. Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci-Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, and engineer whose genius epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. His Last Supper and Mona Lisa are among the most widely popular and influential paintings of the Renaissance.

  7. Salvador Dali Salvador Dali was Spanish painter who became a leader of surrealism. His precisely realistic style enhances the obsessively nightmarish effect of many of his paintings.

  8. Paul Klee Paul Klee, Swiss painter, graphic artist, and art theorist. Klee's enormous production is unique in that it represents the successful combination of his sophisticated theories of art with a very personal inventiveness that has the appearance of great innocence.

  9. Marc Chagall Marc Chagall, Russian painter. Chagall assimilated cubist characteristics into his expressionistic style. He is considered a forerunner of surrealism.

  10. Henri Matisse Henri Marisse, French painter, sculptor, and lithographer. Along with Picasso, Matisse is considered one of the two foremost artists of the modern period. His contribution to 20th-century art is inestimably great.

  11. Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and ceramist, who worked in France. He is generally considered in his technical virtuosity, enormous versatility, and incredible originality and prolificity to have been the foremost figure in 20th-century art.

  12. Pierre-Auguste Renoir Pierre AugusteRenoir, French impressionist painter and sculptor. His early work reflected myriad influences including those of Courbet, Manet, Corot, Ingres and Delacroix.

  13. Henri Rousseau Henri Rousseau, French primitive painter. He was, from the first, entirely self-taught, and his work remained consistently naive and imaginative.

  14. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, French painter and lithographer. His own work is, graphic in nature, the paint never obscuring the strong, original draftsmanship.

  15. Andy Warhol Andy Warhol, made the Campbell Soup can an art object in the early '60s and created colored silk screens of luminaries such as Marilyn Monroe and Mao Zedong.

  16. Norman Rockwell Norman Rockwell, American illustrator. Rockwell specialized in warm and humorous scenes of everyday small-town life. He developed a style of finely drawn realism with a wealth of anecdotal detail.

  17. Raphael Raffaello Santi – major Italian Renaissance painter, In Raphael's work is the clearest expression of the exquisite harmony and balance of High Renaissance composition.

  18. Georgia O'Keeffe Georgia O’Keeffe, American painter. Her work was first exhibited in 1916. Immaculate, sculptural, organic forms painted in strong, clear colors predominate in her works.

  19. Frida Kahlo Frida Kahlo, Mexican painter. As a result of an accident she turned her attention from a medical career to painting. Drawing on her personal experiences, her works are often shocking in their stark portrayal of pain and the harsh lives of women.

  20. Roy Lichtenstein Roy Lichtenstein, American painter. Lichtenstein derived his subject matter from popular sources such as comic strips. His paintings reflect modern typographic and printing techniques such as Ben-Day dots and make innovative use of commonplace imagery.

  21. Romare Bearden Romare Bearden, American painter and collagist. Bearden grew up in Harlem. In his work Bearden attempted to come to terms with and universalize the experience of African Americans.

  22. Alexander Calder Alexander Calder, American sculptor, son of a prominent sculptor, Alexander Stirling Calder. Among the most innovative modern sculptors, Calder was trained as a mechanical engineer.

  23. Henry Moore Henry Moore, English sculptor. Moore's early sculpture was angular and rough, strongly influenced by pre-Columbian art. His works, in wood, stone, and cement are characterized by their smooth, organic shape and often include empty hollows.

  24. Gustav Klimt Gustav Klimt, Austrian painter. He cofounded the Vienna Secession group and in 1897 became its first president. In the following decade Klimt became the foremost painter of art nouveau in Vienna.

  25. M. C. Escher M. C. Escher, Dutch artist. Primarily a graphic artist, Escher composed works notable for their irony, often with impossible perspectives rendered with mechanical verisimilitude. He created visual riddles, playing with the pictorially logical and the visually impossible.

  26. Edgar Degas Edgar Degas, French painter and sculptor. Although prepared for the law, he abandoned it for painting. He was precociously gifted as a draftsman and a brilliantly subtle and penetrating portraitist

  27. Georges Seurat Georges Seurat, French neoimpressionist painter. He devised the pointillist technique of painting in tiny dots of pure color. His method, called divisionism, was a systematic refinement of the broken color of the impressionists.

  28. Rene Magritte Rene Magritte, surrealist painter. Magritte developed a style in which a misleading sort of realism is combined with mocking irony. His paintings are dominated by an intense quietude and restraint, despite a startling juxtaposition of images.

  29. Mary Cassatt Mary Cassatt, American figure painter and etcher. She allied herself with the impressionists early in her career. Motherhood was Cassatt's most frequent subject. Her pictures are notable for their refreshing simplicity, vigorous treatment, and pleasing color.

  30. Josef Albers Josef Albers, German-American painter, printmaker, designer, and teacher. Albers taught throughout the Americas and Europe, headed the art department at Black Mountain College, and was director of the Yale School of Art.

  31. Jean Arp Jean Arp, French sculptor and painter. Arp was connected with the Blaue Reiter in Munich, various avant-garde groups in Paris, including the surrealists. He consistently created novel and abstract forms in various media—bas-reliefs, collages, painted cutouts, sculpture in the round, and painted wood reliefs.

  32. Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, English painter and self-taught artist. He painted a series of variations on figural themes, Van Gogh Goes to Work,Velázquez's Innocent X. Often large in scale, Bacon's works focus on shockingly grotesque and brutally satiric themes.

  33. George Caleb Bingham George Caleb Bingham, American genre painter and politician. His family moved to Missouri, which was the site of most of Bingham's activities. In he studied for a short time at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.

  34. William Morris William Morris, English poet, artist, craftsman, designer, social reformer, and printer. He has long been considered one of the great Victorians and has been called the greatest English designer of the 19th cent.

  35. Edvard Munch Edvard Munch, Norwegian painter and graphic artist. He abandoned impressionism to portray from his profound sense of isolation the themes of death, fear, and anxiety. Munch said he heard “the scream of nature.”

  36. Sources Sources Mark Rothko • • Piet Mondrian • • Thomas Kinkade • • Claude Monet • • Van Gogh • •

  37. Sources Leonardo da Vinci • • • Salvador Dali • • Paul Klee • • Marc Chagall • • Henri Matisse • •

  38. Sources Pablo Picasso • • Pierre-Auguste Renoir • • Henri Rousseau • • Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec • • Andy Warhol • •

  39. Sources Norman Rockwell • • Raphael • • Georgia O'Keeffe • • Frida Kahlo • • Roy Lichtenstein • •

  40. Sources Romare Bearden • • Alexander Calder • • Henry Moore • • Gustav Klimt • • M. C. Escher • •

  41. Sources Edgar Degas • • Georges Seurat • • Rene Magritte • • Mary Cassatt • • Josef Albers • •

  42. Sources Jean Arp • • Francis Bacon • • George Caleb Bingham • • William Morris • • Edvard Munch • •