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Iraq - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Iraq
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  1. Iraq Link to syllabus Link to chronology Link to Brookings Iraq Index http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/Centers/Saban/Iraq%20Index/index.pdf

  2. Iraq: cities and roads

  3. Iraq: Topographical map

  4. Iraq: Population by Religion & Ethnicity ~2000. (millions, and %) Source: Encyclopedia of the Orient

  5. Iraq by Provinces Kirkuk Source: Juan Cole’s blog Iraq has 18 provinces. The three Kurdistan provinces and Kirkuk did not participate in the January, 2009 elections. That left 14, four of them largely Sunni Arab and 10 with Shiite majorities.

  6. Arabian Family Trees

  7. King Faisal 2 1935-1958 King 1953-58 Kingdom was ruled in his name by his Uncle, the Regent. Died in a military coup, in which all his close family died.

  8. Abd al-Karim Qasim 1914-1963. Went to Military College Leader of the 1958 coup against Faisal II and the Hashemite regime. Was himself overthrown and killed in a 1963 coup, led by Baathists. His premiership marks an important transition in Iraqi politics. He was said to be close to the poorer sections of Iraqi society, and instituted an agrarian reform. People inside and outside (US, UK) the country felt he was too close to the Communist Party. This period also marked the high point of Nasserist influence in Iraq.

  9. Saddam Hussein Born 1937 (or ’39) to a modest family in a village near Tikrit, 100 miles to the north of Baghdad. Entered the military. Joined Ba’ath in 1956. Becomes President in 1979. Iraq-Iran war 1980-88. Iraq-Kuwait 1990/91 US-led invasion March 2003. Hussein was captured in late 2003, and executed in late 2006.

  10. Iran-Iraq War 1979-1987 Flashing sections indicate limits of occupation of enemy territory

  11. Basic Data on US-Iraq War Link Iraq War.doc Total cost to US ~$700 billion, or about $10 billion/month US Troops were ~150,000. Surge in 2007 involved 30,000. Troops from other countries initially was ~25,000; now zero. US troop deaths ~4,300. Estimates of Iraqi deaths; 100,000 to 1,000,000 US troops out by end of 2011. Link to Brookings Institution’s Iraq Index http://www.brookings.edu/iraqindex (numerous statistical measures relating to the war in Iraq and its consequences) Cost of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars (costofwar.com) Link to summary of other countries’ positions on the Iraq War

  12. Iraqi Refugees, [BBC, Feb., 2007]

  13. Iraqi Governments, Post-US Invasion (2003) • Coalition Provisional Authority • Interim Iraqi Government 2004 led to elections in Jan. 2005: President Jalal Talabani (Kurd), • Prime Minister was Ibrahim al-Jaafari (pushed out because of weakness towards Kurds), succeeded by Nurial-Maliki (also of the Dawa party, described as Shi’a Islamist). Was re-elected

  14. Ethnic Cleansing in Baghdad Ultimate source is, I believe, New York Times

  15. Nouri al-Maliki, 1950 - Educated in Baghdad, has an MA in Arabic Literature. His grandfather was Minister of Educ. under King Faisal I. Prime Minister since 2006, replacing Ibrahim al-Jaafari. Had long opposed Saddam Hussein. Leader of the Islamic Dawa Party, which is part of the United Iraqi Alliance, predominantly Shia. As Prime Minister, he has exceeded most observers’ expectations. Potential for re-appointment in 2014.

  16. Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Al-Sistani. 1930- Born in Mashhad, Iran into a family of religious scholars. He came to Iraq to study in Najaf under Ayatollah Abul- QassimKhoei. He was accorded the senior rank of mujtahidin 1961, and was recognized as the pre-eminent Shi’a cleric in Iraq in 1992. His office oversees the annual spending of hundreds of millions of dollars for education and charities.

  17. Moqtada al-Sadr 1973 - Born in Baghdad into a prominent family of Shi’a religious figures, some of whom are Lebanese. He himself lacks the religious training to be considered a senior religious scholar (mujtahid). The leader of the Sadrist movement, which is strongest among poor Shi’i in Baghdad and southern Iraq. This movement had a low presence in the 2009 municipal elections. Why? Sadrist defeat by Iraqi army in 2008? tactical withdrawal, waiting for departure of US troops?

  18. Iraq: GDP/Capita (2005 US$) Data suggest that the country lost more due to the Iran/Iraq war, than US invasion. Semi-log graph, made by merging WDI data from 1997 to present with earlier data assembled by Angus Maddison.

  19. Iraq’s Economic Performance Source: Yousif

  20. Iraq’s current problems The northern region is dominated by Kurds, who are acting very independently, and have ¼ of nation’s oil. Final status of Kirkuk not settled. Sectarian conflict (Sunni-Shia) in the western area (Anbar province) in Baghdad, and several other cities. Fueled by an al-Qaeda affiliate. There is also instability spilling over from the civil war in Syria. Lack of growth of democratic practices. The oil industry has recovered, attracting significant interest from foreign companies. Inflation is about 5%/yr.

  21. Foreign Petrol Companies in Iraq Source: US EIA

  22. Bringing the marshes back Source: NYT March 8, 2005

  23. Struggling to Reclaim the Wetlands Source: NYT March 8, 2005

  24. Iraq marshes map

  25. Marketing Melons in Baghdad, 1932 Source: The Photography of Kamil Chadirji

  26. Marsh girls. Near Baghdad, 1931 Source: The Photography of Kamil Chadirji

  27. Iraqi Marshes, 1940s

  28. Marshes 1

  29. Marshes 2

  30. Marshes 3

  31. Marshes 5

  32. Marshes 6

  33. Marshes 7

  34. Iraqi Benchmarks Source: NYT Sept 5, 2007

  35. Iraqi Benchmarks II

  36. Deaths in Iraq Since 2004 Source: NYT December 19, 2006

  37. Doctors in Iraq Source: Brookings Institution, “Iraq Index.” Downloaded November, 2009

  38. Cobbler. Baghdad, 1928 Source: The Photography of Kamil Chadirji

  39. Poll: Approval rating for Al-Maliki Total: 43% 33% 40% 55% Source: Brookings Institution, “Iraq Index.” Downloaded November, 2009

  40. Poll Feel safe in neighborhood? Aggregate: 26% 26% 37% 59% Source: Brookings Institution, “Iraq Index.” Downloaded November, 2009

  41. Iraq GDP/capita Source: WDI (WDI is currently (late 2009) providing minimal data)

  42. Ethnic Cleansing inBaghdad.

  43. Map of 19th Century Middle East