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Why Do We Have Weather?. An Introduction. Take good notes! There will be a quiz at the end of this presentation. WHY DO WE HAVE THE WEATHER ?. Just think about it! Why is there wind? Why does it blow from one direction one day and another the next? Why is it rainy one day and dry the next?

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an introduction

An Introduction

Take good notes! There will be a quiz at the end of this presentation.

why do we have the weather
WHY DO WE HAVE THE WEATHER ?
  • Just think about it!
  • Why is there wind? Why does it blow from one direction one day and another the next?
  • Why is it rainy one day and dry the next?
  • How come it’s cold in the winter?
  • How can we have hail in the summer?
  • What causes snow and freezing rain?
slide5
If we were to pick one term to help explain why we have weather, what do you think would be a good word?

You might pick heat or sun….but another good choice would be

Convection

slide7
After the atmosphere is warmed by radiation and conduction, the heat is transferred throughout the atmosphere by convection.
  • Since warmed air has more space between the molecules, it’s less dense and rises
  • Cooled air is more dense and tends to sink
  • In general, air near the equator tends to rise and air near the poles tends to sink
notice the band of clouds around the equator

Notice the band of clouds around the equator ?

This is the ITCZ or inter tropical convergence zone

did you figure it out
Did you figure it out?
  • Warm, moist air in the topics rises
  • Cold air can hold less moisture than warm air
  • As the moist air rises, it condenses and forms clouds!

More on this later

the weather highways
The Weather Highways
  • The rotation of the earth creates the Coriolis effect.
  • The Coriolis effect causes the air and water to be deflected to the right north of the equator.
  • This creates global weather highways
the westerlies
The Westerlies
  • Because of our latitude, most of our weather comes from the west
  • Looking at the weather map, what type of weather might we expect?
  • What type of weather might we expect in a few days?
let s break for a short review
Let’s break for a short review

1.Transfer of heat in liquids or gases_____

2. _____ air is dense and tends to sink.

3. Band of clouds found around the equator______

4. Cold air holds _____ moisture than warm air

5. The Coriolis effect causes the air and water to be deflected to the _____ of the equator

how did you do
How did you do?

1.CONVECTION

2. COLD

3. ITCZ

4. LESS

5. RIGHT

now what
Now What?
  • Ok, so we know that the weather moves around on these highways and that warm air rises and cold air sinks.
  • But why is it sunny one day, and rainy the next?
let s take another look at the weather map
Let’s take another look at the weather map
  • Notice that there are H’s and L’s on the map
  • There are also blue lines with spikes and red lines with half circles
  • Let’s take a closer look!
high pressure areas
High Pressure Areas
  • When cooler air sinks and is warmed, the air can hold more moisture
  • This usually means sunny skies
  • Winds tend to move clockwise around a high
low pressure areas
Low Pressure Areas
  • When warm air rises and is cooled, the air can not hold as much moisture
  • Often, these areas are associated with precipitation and stormy weather
  • Winds tend to move counter clockwise around the low
fronts and air masses
Fronts and Air Masses
  • An air mass is a large body of air whose temperature and moisture are fairly similar at a given altitude
  • Fronts are boundaries separating different air masses
  • There are four different air masses that affect the United States
the air masses
The Air Masses
  • cP( continental polar) : cold, dry stable
  • cT( continental tropical) : hot, dry, stable air aloft, unstable at the surface
  • mP( maritime polar) : cool, moist, unstable
  • mT( maritime tropical) : warm, moist, unstable
ok now we see the difference in the air masses
Ok, now we see the difference in the air masses
  • Let’s look at the different fronts and their impact on weather
  • Can you see the four different types of fronts on the map?
warm fronts
Warm Fronts
  • A warm front is warm air displacing cool air diagram
  • Shallow leading edge warm air must “overrun” cold air
  • These are usually slow moving
cold fronts
Cold Fronts
  • Cold air advances into region of warm air
  • Intensity of precipitation greater, but short lived
  • Clearing conditions after front passes
  • Usually approaches from W or NW
stationary fronts
Stationary Fronts
  • Surface positions of the front do not move
  • Often a region of clouds
occluded fronts
Occluded Fronts
  • Cold front overtakes warm front
  • Often found close to the low pressure center
ready for a little quiz you ll need a sheet of paper
Ready for a little quiz?You’ll need a sheet of paper
  • Write your answers as we go
  • Here we go!
slide33
1.
  • Winds in a low pressure system move _____ around the low
slide34
2.
  • What type of front can be found close to point D ?
slide35
3.
  • Which of these fronts would you expect to have greater precipitation, but be short lived as the front passes?
slide36
4.
  • Give the name of the air mass that would have the following characteristics:
  • cool, moist, unstable
slide39
7.

It causes air and water to be deflected to the right north of the equator

slide41
9.

Warm air holds ( more or less ) moisture than cold air

slide42
10.
  • If there is a bigH on the weather map where you live, would you expect fair or stormy weather
how did you do43
How did you do?

Let’s check the answers!

answers
Answers

1. Counterclockwise 8. Westerlies

2. Cold 9. More

3. Cold 10. Fair

4. Maritime polar (mP)

5. Convection

6. Rise

7. Coriolis