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The Post- Perón Era. Military-Civilian conflict and the rise of terrorism. Military governments since 1955. Basic preoccupations How to deal with political enemies Peronists Communists How to deal with economic development Role of military Who can best promote economic development

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the post per n era

The Post-Perón Era

Military-Civilian conflict and the rise of terrorism

military governments since 1955
Military governments since 1955
  • Basic preoccupations
    • How to deal with political enemies
      • Peronists
      • Communists
    • How to deal with economic development
      • Role of military
      • Who can best promote economic development
      • What kind of economic development
  • Ideological positions within the military
    • Constitutionalists – Blues (Azules, blandos)
      • Favor industrialization, willing to work with Peronists
    • Anti-constitutionalists – Reds (Colorados, duros, gorilos)
      • Pro-agrarian sector, dictatorial
        • Saw Peronists as “Argentine Communists”
military governments since 19551
Military governments since 1955
  • Historical concerns about militarism
    • Did militarism create terrorists, or vice versa?
    • Where did the desire to search for enemies come from?
    • How do you measure the success or failure of post-1930 military governments?
    • How do you create a sense of nationalism if the military won’t let people present their chosen candidates?
    • Are the militaries sufficiently competent to lead a modern nation?
civilian governments and the military 1958 1966
Civilian governments and the military, 1958-1966
  • How do you conduct politics when 30% of population can not choose their own candidates? If they do, the military will step in.
  • Arturo Frondizi, 1958-63
    • Won elections by making a secret deal with the Peronists
      • Promised to legalize the CGT
      • Promised to legalize the Peronist Party
civilian governments and the military 1958 19661
Civilian governments and the military, 1958-1966
  • Arturo Frondizi, 1958-63
    • Dedicated administration to economic development and the reintegration of Peronists
      • Wanted to promote heavy industry
      • Saw role of government to stimulate savings, encourage foreign investment, develop fiscal and monetary policies, develop foreign markets
      • Renegotiated contracts with Standard Oil to explore for oil
      • Invited foreign firms to Argentina
civilian governments and the military 1958 19662
Civilian governments and the military, 1958-1966
  • Arturo Frondizi, 1958-63
    • Dedicated administration to economic development and the reintegration of Peronists
      • Went to IMF in Dec. 1958 to get loan to proceed with development plans
        • IMF demanded austerity plans including firing 15% government workers, stop public works, increase railroad rates by 150%, increase electrical rates, 2 year wage freeze, raise taxes
        • Negatively received by working class suffering from 30% annual inflation, felt singled out since other sectors not affected (agrarian and industry)
        • Frondizi branded traitor by Peronists, Radicals and nationalists
civilian governments and the military 1958 19663
Civilian governments and the military, 1958-1966
  • Arturo Frondizi, 1958-63
    • Dedicated administration to economic development and the reintegration of Peronists
      • Passed new labor statute, granted amnesty for Peronist leaders
      • By 1961 allowed them to run own candidates in provincial elections
        • Peronists won 9 of 22 provincial governments including Buenos Aires
      • Overthrown by military when he refused to annul elections
peronism under frondizi
Peronism under Frondizi
  • Perón in exile refused to delegate authority to any of his followers—sent audio tapes back and forth
  • Labor divided after Perón into two groups of labor unions and a series of non-union based groups
    • Sixty-Two Organizations formed in 1957 as a purely Peronist Block
    • Thirty-Two Organizations that defined themselves as liberal unions
radical peronism and unions
Radical Peronism and Unions
  • Began to dispute tactics to force Frondizi to liberalize political conditions
  • Among Peronists, a more left-wing group led by John Cooke, challenged union leaders for control of the party
  • Jan. 1959 major strike to oppose de-nationalization of a meat packing plant
  • Workers fought police for 6 days from Jan. 15-21 organized by the Peronist left, followed by a 2 day General Strike ordered by the 62 Organizations
plan conintes
Plan CONINTES
  • Massive response from Frondizi Government
  • Plan called CONINTES (CONmoción INTerno del EStado
  • Industrial areas were put under control of the military
  • Thousands of workers arrested, many unions closed down
  • Destroyed the force of the 62 Organizations
  • Led to lose of Peronist support for Frondizi
military intervention 1962 63
Military Intervention 1962-63
  • Military puppet regime under José María Guido, former President of Chamber of Deputies
  • Economy aided by bumper harvests and increased sales of grain to Soviets and Chinese.
  • Military stayed in the background, partly to appease Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress
  • Military also still divided between the Blues and the Reds
  • Blues called for elections in 1963—again no Peronists allowed to run candidates
arturo illia
Arturo Illia
  • Winner of elections was member of UCRP-supposed to be anti-Peronist, a country doctor named Arturo Illia
  • Only got 25% of the popular vote—20% blank votes, UCRI 16%--rest went to many parties
  • As member of UCRP Illia had made no promises to Peronists, yet couldn’t maintain stability in the country without them
causes of the overthrow of illia
Causes of the Overthrow of Illia
  • Refused to send troops to the Dominican Republic in 1965 at request of US
  • Military offended by success of new Peronist Party (Unión Popular) in 1965 off elections
  • Military offended by the removal of Blue General Juan Carlos Onganía as Chief of Armed Forces
  • Led to coup of June 27, 1966
the rise of guerrilla movements
The Rise of Guerrilla Movements
  • In 1958, Peronist Youth [JP]formed to restore Perón to power and create a form of national socialism.
  • 1959, Uturuncos [“tiger men” in Quechua] form in Tucumán, established training camps based on Cuban model
  • 1962-63 People’s Guerrilla Army EGP, rural guerrillas, and right wing Tacuara (Revolutionary Nationalist Movement, and urban-based group.
  • 1964 Major members of Tacuara arrested, but leader went to Montevideo to work with Tupamaros
  • 1968 militants of JP formed new group FAP [Peronist Armed Forces]
bureaucratic authoritarianism
Bureaucratic Authoritarianism
  • Term coined by Guillermo O’Donnell to describe new form of militarism that emerged in Argentina and other Latin American countries at this time
  • Goals: Remove political impasses by closing down political parties; Promote “deep industrialization” heavy industry; rationalize industry
  • Implemented by a military junta
  • All political parties banned, only workers and students free to protest, but University Reforms of July 1966 gave government the right to control universities
response to bureaucratic authoritarianism
Response to Bureaucratic Authoritarianism
  • Unions planned Plan de Acción (Plan of Action), February 1967
    • Series of partial strikes followed by General Strike
    • Government responded by freezing union bank accounts and took away their right to represent workers
    • Stimulated the Peronist Labor unions to organize again, but they split over tactics
    • Participationists led by Augusto Vandor; those totally loyal to Perón, again called the 62 at Perón’s Side, refused to work with Illia
responses con t
Responses, con’t
  • Students offended by political purges of university Faculty: Filosofía y Letras lost 41%, Ciencias Exactas 51%
  • Began to defy government openly in 1968
  • Military responded by rolling tanks to the front of universities and threatening to destroy them
cordobazo
CORDOBAZO
  • What really spelled the end of the Onganía government was a massive popular demonstration in the city of Córdoba in May 1969.
  • Instigated by university students and workers for different reasons
  • Led to the streets
causes
Causes
  • Córdoba doing quite well with a nascent auto industry
  • In 1951 produced 108 trucks and vans; by 1969 produced 218,000 cars and trucks—1 car for every 12 people—US 1-2, Brazil 1-31; England 1-4, Haiti 1-550
  • Auto unions linked to a new radical CGT led by Raimundo Ongaro
  • Protested reforms to increase work week to 40-44 hours. Already paid for 48 hour week
  • Protested increased costs of gas and buses.
  • Students protested May 13 increased cost of lunches—one student killed in protest
  • Strikes took to the streets after General Strike May 29-30 100s killed
downfall of bureaucratic authoritarianism
Downfall of Bureaucratic Authoritarianism
  • General Onganía removed from office June 1970
  • Replaced by Roberto Levingston and then by General Alejandro Lanusse
  • Faced by new threats: left wing guerrillas supported by Peronists and Marxists
  • Kidnapping, bank robberies, bombs, assassination of diplomats and labor union leaders
  • Economic conditions deteriorating with inflation
  • Led to return of Perón in 1973
more guerrillas band together
More Guerrillas Band Together
  • 1969 Fernando Abal Medina formed group based upon Che Guevara and Camilo Torres’ ideas—called Montoneros
  • Same year FAR, Revolutionary Armed Forces formed, by 1970 they joined the Peronists, and began to kill labor leaders who might challenge the return of Perón like José Alonso.
  • Then in 1970 banned political parties founded the “Hour of the People” including Radicals, Popular Conservatives, Socialists, and Peronists. Intent: force new elections.