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The Northeast / Mid-Atlantic Low-Carbon Fuels Initiative. Stakeholder Meeting Newark, NJ October 27, 2009. Michelle Manion Matt Solomon. What’s an “LCFS” again?. Performance-based standard for fuels Does not “pick winners” or ban any fuel

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the northeast mid atlantic low carbon fuels initiative

The Northeast / Mid-Atlantic Low-Carbon Fuels Initiative

Stakeholder Meeting

Newark, NJ

October 27, 2009

Michelle Manion

Matt Solomon

what s an lcfs again
What’s an “LCFS” again?
  • Performance-based standard for fuels
  • Does not “pick winners” or ban any fuel
  • Regulates “carbon intensity” or lifecycle GHG emissions from fuels
  • Requires displacement of conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) with low-carbon substitutes
  • Heating oil could be included
  • NOT A CAP ON TRANSPORTATION EMISSIONS
what s carbon intensity again
What’s “carbon intensity” again?
  • A measure of the total CO2-equivalent emissions produced throughout a fuel’s lifecycle
  • Measured in grams of CO2-equivalent GHG emissions per unit of energy in fuel

gCO2e/MJ

(Source: Guihua Wang and Mark Delucchi, 2005. “Pathway Diagrams”. Appendix X to the Report “A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials.” http://www.its.ucdavis.edu/publications/2003/UCD-ITS-RR-03-17X.pdf)

similarities to ca program
Similarities to CA Program

Methodology

  • General program structure (where practical)
  • GREET model for assessment of “traditional” lifecycle impacts
  • Account for indirect land-use change

Scope

  • All transportation fuels
  • Heating oil
  • Other heating fuels…

Stringency

  • States are not required to adopt CARB’s reduction targets
  • Regionally consistent stringency is preferred
    • Interconnected fuel supply network
    • Facilitate compliance for regulated parties
    • Maximize program effectiveness
issues unique to region
Issues Unique to Region
  • Our region uses as much fuel for space heating as for transportation.
    • Represents ~50% regional distillate demand
  • Point of regulation
    • Most transportation fuel imported to region as finished product
  • Compliance & Enforcement
    • 11 states = 11 enforcement authorities
    • Regional credit pool might be desirable
  • Default CI Values
    • Lookup table must be specific to region
    • Could include pathways not considered in CA
slide6
Heating Oil
    • Lifecycle accounting process
    • Credit banking and trading

Source data: EIA, State Energy Data System

potential for in region production of low carbon fuels
Potential for In-Region Production of Low Carbon Fuels
  • The Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states import most fossil fuels, and are price-takers on world markets;
  • Volatility of fuel prices imposes significant costs on the regional economy;
  • The region has significant biomass resources and substantial R&D in developing fuel technologies (e.g., advanced biofuels, gasification, PHEV batteries);
  • Production of low carbon fuels within the region has the potential to create regional economic benefits while reducing fuel imports and increasing energy security.
regional feedstocks
Regional Feedstocks
  • Municipal Solid Waste
    • Only items that have reached the end of their use cycle (non-reusable, non-recyclable)
    • The Northeast’s most significant resource
    • Less likely to induce additional LUC than virgin feedstocks
  • Woody Biomass
    • New England has substantial woody biomass but also many existing markets (e.g., pulp and paper, exports)
    • NY and PA combine for approximately two-thirds of available supply
  • Agricultural Residues
    • New York and Pennsylvania dominate again, approximately 75 to 90 percent of agricultural biomass resources
slide10

Estimated Biomass in 2010

Maximum Woody Biomass is 33 to 37 million dry tons; we conservatively estimate “likely availability” to be 5 to 6 million dry tons.

potential regional production of low carbon fuels 2010 and 2020
Potential Regional Production of Low Carbon Fuels, 2010 and 2020

2020 projected business-as-usual demand in 11-state region:

32 Bgal gasoline

15 Bgal distillate

slide12
Effects on Grid Capacity of Different PHEV Charging (in GW)(Assuming 40-mile All-Electric Range and “Low” Penetration)
effect of grid resource mix on electricity ci draft results

Gasoline Baseline = 96.7

Effect of Grid Resource Mix on Electricity CI (Draft Results)

Assumes Energy Economy Ratio = 3.0. US & CA generation mix based on GREET default; Northeast generation mix is for NESCAUM region, based on NE-MARKAL modeling.

electricity as a low carbon fuel
Electricity as a Low-Carbon Fuel
  • Impacts on T&D Infrastructure: the Northeast has many load pockets, so analyzing capacity across the grid does not reflect local capacity constraints
  • Consumer behavior: EVs are a new technology with little or no real-time base of consumer experiences
  • Generating credits: who will own and trade low carbon fuel credits generated by consumers’ use of EVs and PHEVs?
  • Calculating CI for electricity: exploring different options for levels of precision on the carbon intensity of electricity used for EV and PHEV charging?
thank you
Thank You

Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management

89 South Street, Suite 602

Phone 617-259-2000

Boston, MA 02111

Fax 617-742-9162

carbon intensity calculation conventional gasoline
Carbon Intensity Calculation: Conventional Gasoline

Well-To-Tank Carbon Intensity: 16.9 gCO2e/MJ

+ Carbon Content of Fuel: 72.9 gCO2e/MJ

+ Vehicle emissions of CH4 and N20: 2.47gCO2e/MJ

= Lifecycle Carbon Intensity: 92.3 gCO2e/MJ

slide18

Average Fuel Carbon Intensity (AFCI)

  • Measure of compliance for regulated parties
  • Weighted average of the CI values of every fuel sold
  • Example:
    • 100 MJ of gasoline at 95 g/MJ
    • 20 MJ of low-C substitute at 50 g/MJ
    • AFCI =

g/MJ

ci values for selected fuel pathways draft results
CI Values for Selected Fuel Pathways (Draft Results):

* Does not include effects of indirect land-use change

ci values for selected fuel pathways draft results20
CI Values for Selected Fuel Pathways (Draft Results):

*Values adjusted for end-use efficiency.

slide21

Distillate Fuel Consumption Estimates by Sector, 2006 (million gallons)

Source: EIA State Energy Data System. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_fuel/html/pdf/fuel_use_df.pdf

slide22

Gasoline Baseline = 96.7

Effect of Grid Resource Mix on Electricity CI (Draft Results)

US & CA technology shares based on GREET default; Northeast grid mix is for NESCAUM region, based on NE-MARKAL model.

Oil Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Biomass Other

US Average 3% 19% 51% 19% 1% 8%

CA Average 1% 41% 15% 19% 2% 23%

Northeast 2005 10% 31% 16% 31% 0% 12%

Northeast 2020 4% 41% 8% 18% 2% 27%

slide23

Analytical Methods: Overview

CarbonIntensity (CI) for each fuel type

Average Fuel Carbon Intensity (AFCI)

Total energy consumption for each fuel type

slide24

Analytical Methods: Overview

LifecycleFuel Analysis

Fuel 1 CI

Fuel 2 CI

Fuel 3 CI

AFCI Calculator

AFCI

Sales Data or Scenario Projections

Fuel 1 Sales

Fuel 2 Sales

Fuel 3 Sales

slide25

Analytical Methods: Overview

Lifecycle Fuel Analysis

  • Production pathway
  • Land use effects (direct & indirect)
  • Transport modes
  • Storage, delivery

Fuel 1 Carbon Intensity

Lifecycle Emissions Model

(GREET)

Fuel 2 Carbon Intensity

Fuel 3 Carbon Intensity

AFCI Calculator

AFCI

Sales Data or Scenario Projections

Transportation Energy Demand Model

(VISION-NE)

Fuel 1 Sales

  • Transportation fleet mix
  • Annual VMT per vehicle
  • Fuel economy

Fuel 2 Sales

Fuel 3 Sales

  • #2 heating oil demand?
  • Other fuel?
administration and compliance greet interface tool
Administration and Compliance:GREET Interface Tool

GREET Interface Tool

  • Production pathway
  • Land use effects (direct & indirect)
  • Transport modes
  • Storage, delivery

Lifecycle Emissions Model

(GREET)

Carbon Intensity for each fuel & pathway

greet lifecycle model
GREET Lifecycle Model
  • Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation
  • Excel spreadsheet model
  • Calculates CO2-equivalent GHG and criteria emission factors (g/mmBtu) for numerous fuel pathways
  • Developed and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory (US DOE)
  • Basis for CARB and USEPA lifecycle carbon intensity valuation (except for indirect Land Use Change)
  • GREET is both a calculation methodology and a large set of input data
    • Methodology is valid for any region
    • Many default inputs are national averages; user can substitute state- or region-specific data
administration and compliance greet interface tool28
Administration and Compliance:GREET Interface Tool
  • GREET is very complicated to use, but:
    • an LCFS program requires modification of only a (relatively) small number of inputs…
    • …and only one key output for each fuel pathway.
  • Life Cycle Associates, LLC has developed a GREET interface tool to “poke” the key input parameters into GREET and “peek” at the results.
  • This tool can be used as-is to assist states and other stakeholders in assessing CI values for selected fuel pathways.
  • Could be expanded for use as a “compliance calculator” for regulatory purposes.