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Grain Storage Webinar Handling the 2014 ‘Bumper’ Crop

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Grain Storage Webinar Handling the 2014 ‘Bumper’ Crop

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  1. Grain Storage WebinarHandling the 2014 ‘Bumper’ Crop MU Extension Engineering Specialists Jim Crawford – NRE, Northwest Region Charles Ellis – NRE, East Central Region Kent Shannon – NRE, Northeast Region Frank Wideman – NRE, Southeast Region Joe Zulovich – Ag Engr, Commercial Ag MU Extension Ag Economist – Ray Massey Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  2. THE 2014 GROWING SEASON CHARLES ELLIS NATURAL RESOURCE ENGINEER Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  3. The Summer of 2014 • What’s it similar to • 2004 • Planting season • Much of the corn crop planted in a timely manner • Some areas with delays in soybean planting into late June • Planting of double crop beans delayed Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  4. The Summer of 2014 • Cooler than normal temperatures with timely rains. • Parts of the state had 10+ inches of rain in August. • September 1, 2-6 inches of rain in east Central Missouri. • Soils are getting saturated. Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  5. 2014 Corn Development Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  6. 2014 Corn Development • AgClimate4U.org • Corn Growing Degree Day Tool • County Level Tool • Example • Audrain County Missouri • 113 RM corn planted April 19 • Similar development to 2004 • Approximately one week later development than the 1981-2010 average. Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  7. Harvesting The Corn Crop • Example • 8 row combine • Harvesting at 4 mph • 80% efficiency • 8 hrs./day • 7.5 ac./hr. • 135 bu./ac. average • 1012 bu./hr. • 8096 bu./day • 150 bu./ac. average • 1125 bu./hr. • 9000 bu./day • 170 bu./ac. average • 1275 bu./hr. • 10200 bu./day Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  8. Harvesting the Corn Crop • Potentially an additional 2000 bu./day • Haul • Dry • Store • With 1000 acres of corn potentially 35000 additional bushels. Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  9. What Will Delay/Slow Harvest • Delayed Crop Maturity • Additional Bushels to Haul • Dryer Capacity • Elevator Constraints in Volume and Drying • High Dew Point Temperatures May Shorten Harvest Hours. • Are We Approaching Muddy Conditions? Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  10. Getting the Corn Harvested Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  11. FOR FURTHER INFO CONTACT Charles Ellis NATURAL RESOURCE ENGINEER LINCOLN COUNTY EXTENSION CENTER ellisce@missouri.edu PH 636-528-4613 Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  12. Stage of harvest maturity & implications Frank Wideman REGIONAL NATURAL RESOURCE ENGINEER Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  13. Why worry about harvest timing? • Weather • Rain • Mud • Wind • Equipment issues • Acres per day • Limited window of opportunity Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  14. Corn moisture content • Black layer • 30-35% moisture content • Finished adding dry matter to grain • Too wet to harvest? • Traditional harvest starts at 25% moisture • Requires heated drying and lots of air • Natural air drying at 18-20% moisture • Careful management to avoid spoilage • 15% for over winter storage • Minimal losses with in field storage • Some dry matter loss each time rewetting Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  15. Soybean moisture content • Moisture at harvest less forgiving than corn • Soybean are very hydroscopic • Moistures above 18% harvest cause damage • Bean bruising and crushing • Ideal harvest at 13-15% moisture • 10-13% • Shattering • Lodging • Lower market weights • Below 10% the beans are brittle • Over winter storage at 13% Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  16. FOR FURTHER INFO CONTACT Frank Wideman NATURAL RESOURCE ENGINEER PERRY COUNTY EXTENSION CENTER WidemanF@missouri.edu PH 573-547-4504 Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  17. GRAIN DRYING BASICS CHARLES ELLIS NATURAL RESOURCE ENGINEER Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  18. What Happens When Grain Dries? • Moisture absorbing capacity of the air moving through the grain is used to evaporate moisture from the grain resulting in: • Increased water in the air as vapor, higher RH. • Lower air temperatures leaving the grain. Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  19. 15.5% Corn Is: • 47.3 lbs. of dry matter. • 8.7 lbs. of water Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  20. 20% Corn Is: • 47.32 lbs. of dry matter. • 11.83 lbs. of water. Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  21. Psychrometrics/Drying Principles 85 Degrees 54% R. H. 75 Degrees 75% R. H. Heat Equilibrium Corn Moisture 15.2% Equilibrium Corn Moisture 11.4% Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  22. Equilibrium Moisture of Corn Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  23. Layered In-Bin Drying Wet Grain Cooler Moist Air Drying Zone Air Flow Dry Grain in Equilibrium Dry, Warm Air Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  24. Proper Storage Moisture Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  25. Storage Time for Corn Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  26. Storage Time for Beans Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  27. Temp. Data for Mid Missouri Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  28. FOR FURTHER INFO CONTACT Charles Ellis NATURAL RESOURCE ENGINEER LINCOLN COUNTY EXTENSION CENTER ellisce@missouri.edu PH 636-528-4613 Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  29. Natural Air DryingHow Long Will It Take / Will it Work? Kent Shannon Natural Resource Engineer University of Missouri Extension Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  30. Moisture Content vs. Temperature Dictates Safe Storage Time Source: MWPS Managing Dry Grain in Storage, 2004 Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  31. Temp. Data for Mid Missouri Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  32. Recommended Airflow for Drying Corn Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  33. Airflow Through Grain • When air is forced through grain, it encounters resistance, which is pressure drop. • Pressure Drop is the result of friction in the grain mass. Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  34. Airflow Through Grain Cont. • Pressure Drop is dependent on: • properties of the drying air • airflow rate • characteristics of the grain • amount of void space • broken kernels and fines • grain depth Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  35. Selecting Fans and Fan Curves Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  36. Influence ofGrain Type on Airflow Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  37. Influence ofBin Diameter on Airflow Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  38. Drying Strategies • Dry to 16 percent moisture in fall finish drying to 13 percent moisture in spring • Dry to 13 percent moisture in fall Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  39. Drying Strategies - Equipment • 27 foot drying bin • 14 foot maximum fill • Capacity 6413 bushels • 7.5 horsepower fan • Airflow - 1.47 cfm/bu or 9397 total cfm Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  40. Airflow and Pressure with Different Quantities of Grain in a Bin – 27 ft bin with 7.5 hp axial flow fan Depth Airflow Airflow S.P. (ft) Bushels (cfm) (cfm/bu) (in. H2O) 8.0 3664 10608 2.89 1.99 10.0 4580 10181 2.22 2.35 12.0 5497 9777 1.78 2.66 14.0 6413 9397 1.47 2.93 16.0 7329 9044 1.23 3.17 18.0 8245 8720 1.06 3.39 20.0 9161 8420 0.92* 3.58 Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  41. Drying Strategies – Natural AirFor September Harvest – 24 % M.C. Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  42. Moisture Content vs. Temperature Dictates Safe Storage Time Source: MWPS Managing Dry Grain in Storage, 2004 Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  43. Drying Strategies – Natural AirFor September Harvest – 20 % M.C. Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  44. Drying Strategies - Equipment • 30 foot drying bin • 27 foot maximum fill • Capacity 15268 bushels • 2 x 15 horsepower centrifugal fans in parallel • Airflow - 1.01 cfm/bu or 15380 total cfm Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  45. Airflow and Pressure with Different Quantities of Grain in a Bin – 30 foot bin with 2 SUKUP 3500 rpm Centrif. 15 hp in Parallel Depth Airflow Airflow S.P. (ft) Bushels (cfm) (cfm/bu) (in. H2O) 12.0 6786 18056 2.66 4.81 15.0 8482 17537 2.07 5.75 18.0 10179 16992 1.67 6.58 21.0 11875 16469 1.39 7.33 24.0 13572 15983 1.18 8.01 27.0 15268 15380 1.01 8.52 30.0 16965 14834 0.87* 8.97 Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  46. Drying Strategies - Equipment • 42 foot drying bin • 27 foot maximum fill • Capacity 29926 bushels • 2 x 40 horsepower centrifugal fans in parallel • Airflow – 1.01 cfm/bu or 30101 total cfm Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  47. Airflow and Pressure with Different Quantities of Grain in a Bin – 42 foot bin with 2 SUKUP 3500 rpm Centrif. 40 hp in Parallel Depth Airflow Airflow S.P. (ft) Bushels (cfm) (cfm/bu) (in. H2O) 12.0 13300 33895 2.55 4.51 15.0 16625 32991 1.98 5.41 18.0 19950 32173 1.61 6.25 21.0 23275 31452 1.35 7.05 24.0 26600 30775 1.16 7.81 27.0 29926 30101 1.01 8.50 30.0 33251 29455 0.89* 9.15 Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  48. Natural Air DryingHow Long Will It Take / Will it Work? • Has potential with smaller bins or larger bins with shallower depths • Need to know the specs of the fan and its potential performance – This will be key • Most larger bins have fans sized for aeration (0.3 cfm per bushel) Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  49. FOR FURTHER INFO CONTACT Kent Shannon NATURAL RESOURCE ENGINEER BOONE COUNTY EXTENSION CENTER shannond@missouri.edu PH 573-445-9792 Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014

  50. ECONOMICS OF GRAIN DRYING RAY MASSEY CROP ECONOMIST Grain Storage Webinar – Sept 8, 2014