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Teacher and Student Attitudes Toward Information Technology in Four Nations: 1998 Texas (USA) Results. Presentation to the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education (SITE) 10th International Conference March 2, 1999 San Antonio, Texas Rhonda Christensen Gerald Knezek

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teacher and student attitudes toward information technology in four nations 1998 texas usa results

Teacher and Student Attitudes Toward Information Technology in Four Nations: 1998 Texas (USA) Results

Presentation to the Society for Information Technology

& Teacher Education (SITE) 10th International Conference

March 2, 1999

San Antonio, Texas

Rhonda Christensen

Gerald Knezek

University of North Texas

summary of usa 1998 research findings
Summary of USA 1998 Research Findings
  • Attitudes toward technology become more positive with “training”.
  • Some attitudes change more quickly than others (anxiety, acceptance, etc.)
  • Teacher attitudes toward technology impact student attitudes.
  • Attitude change is the precursor to new behaviors.
  • Teacher Training is Essential!
prior work
Prior Work
  • SITE 1997
  • Christensen, Rhonda and Knezek, Gerald (1997). Internal consistency reliabilities for 14 computer attitude scales.
  • Knezek, Gerald and Christensen, Rhonda (1997). Changes in teacher attitudes during information technology training.
  • Dissertation 1997
  • Christensen, Rhonda. (1997). Effect of technology integration education on attitudes of teachers and their students.
  • SERA 1996
  • Christensen, Rhonda and Gerald Knezek. Constructing the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computers (TAC) Questionnaire
seven factor structure of tac
Seven Factor Structure of TAC

Factor Alpha #items

F1 (Enthusiasm/Enjoyment) .97 30

F2 (Anxiety) .97 30

F3 (Avoidance) .90 13

F4 (Email for Classroom) .95 11

F5 (Neg. impact of society) .85 11

F6 (Productivity Improvement) .96 30

F7 (Semantic Perception) .94 10

pre post for a texas elem school form a
Pre-Post for a Texas Elem. School (Form A)

8/96 5/97 t Prob

  • F1A Enthusiasm 3.96 3.92 0.69 0.494
  • F2A Anxiety 3.56 3.81 -2.79 0.009
  • F3 Avoidance 5.14 5.72 -8.64 0.0037
  • F4 Email 3.57 3.56 0.08 0.939
  • F5 Neg. Impact 3.79 3.76 0.51 0.617
  • F6A Prod. Imp. 4.19 4.12 0.97 0.342
  • F7 Kay's CAM 5.28 5.73 -2.37 0.025
tat focus assessing attitudes toward new information technologies nit
TAT Focus: Assessing Attitudes Toward New Information Technologies (NIT)
  • Electronic Mail
    • Teacher Productivity
    • Classroom Learning
  • Multimedia
  • WWW
semantic differential template
Semantic Differential Template

To me, Electronic Mail is:

important __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ unimportant

boring __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ interesting

relevant __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ irrelevant

exciting __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ unexciting

means nothing __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ means a lot

appealing __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ unappealing

fascinating __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ mundane

worthless __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ valuable

involving __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ uninvolving

not needed __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ : __ needed

pilot test site
Pilot Test Site
  • Large urban public school district in Texas
  • 147 teachers from six K-12 schools
  • May 1997 administration
  • Cronbach’s Alpha: .91 - .98
louisiana 97 pre post
Louisiana ‘97 Pre-Post

Pre Post f Prob.

Kay's Semantic 5.67 6.24 8.64 0.000

Email-Teacher 5.14 5.72 8.64 0.003

Email-Student 4.70 5.48 13.0 0.000

Email-Likert 3.39 3.98 31.7 0.00005

WWW-Teacher 5.54 6.12 9.36 0.0026

WWW-Student 5.24 5.87 9.19 0.0028

MultiMedia-T 5.97 6.2 1.71 0.19

MultiMedia-S 5.55 5.94 3.27 0.07

Productivity-T 6.00 6.23 1.53 0.22

Productivity-S 6.14 6.13 0.007 0.93

usa 1997 estimates for tac 16 factor reliabilities
USA 1997 Estimates for TAC 16 Factor Reliabilities
  • No. Items Alpha
  • F1 (Enthusiasm) 15 .96
  • F2 (Anxiety) 15 .98
  • F3 (Acceptance) 4 .75
  • F4 (Email) 11 .95
  • F5 (NI on Society) 10 .84
  • F6 (Prod-classroom) 14 .90
  • F7 (KaySemantic) 10 .94
  • F8 (Vocation) 13 .92
  • F9 (Prestige) 8 .75
  • F10 (Prod-teacher) 14 .94
  • F11 (Aversion) 6 .74
  • F12 (Gender) 6 .81
  • F13 (K&M Importance) 8 .83
  • F14 (L&G Confidence) 6 .83
  • F15 (P&P Relevance) 10 .89
  • F16 (P&P Enjoyment) 8 .90
slide16

1998 Educator Mean Scores on TAC Attributes (16 Factor Structure) for 4 States in Mexico vs. a Professional Development Site in Northern Texas

  • Mexico -NL MX-GUJ MX-TLX MX-QR USA-Texas MX Signif.
  • F1 Enthusiam 4.37 4.08 4.28 3.97 3.97 0.0481
  • F2 Anxiety 4.22 4.04 4.16 3.96 4.13 0.4062
  • F3 Acceptance 4.43 3.66 4.17 4.13 4.55 0.0004
  • F4 Email 4.10 4.00 3.67 2.85 3.42 0.0016
  • F5 NIonSociety 3.51 3.28 3.59 3.52 3.70 0.1139
  • F6 ClassroomProd. 4.20 3.29 4.15 3.91 4.14 0.0001
  • F7 Kay'sSem. 5.69 5.32 5.7 5.32 5.43 0.7122
  • F8 Vocation 4.19 4.24 3.98 3.76 4.21 0.0309
  • F9 Prestige 3.94 3.85 3.53 3.38 3.75 0.0264
  • F10 TeacherProd. 4.33 4.07 4.15 3.95 4.11 0.0348
  • F11 Aversion 4.00 3.80 3.96 3.67 4.14 0.1435
  • F13 K&MImportance 3.62 3.25 3.29 3.12 3.30 0.2261
  • F14 L&G Conf. 4.19 4.25 4.08 3.89 3.50 0.1891
  • F15 P&PRelevance 4.59 4.35 4.5 4.32 4.48 0.2516
  • F16 P&PEnjoyment 3.69 3.68 3.66 3.43 2.96 0.3412
mexico 1998 estimates for tac 16f reliabilities spanish translation
Mexico 1998 Estimates for TAC 16F Reliabilities (Spanish Translation)
  • No. Items US ‘97 MX Alpha ‘98
  • F1 (Enthusiasm) 15 .96 .88
  • F2 (Anxiety) 15 .98 .85
  • F3 (Acceptance) 4 .75 .42
  • F4 (Email) 11 .95 .94
  • F5 (NI on Society) 10 .84 .55
  • F6 (Prod-classroom) 14 .90 .84
  • F7 (KaySemantic) 10 .94 .90
  • F8 (Vocation) 13 .92 .85
  • F9 (Prestige) 8 .75
  • F10 (Prod-teacher) 14 .94 .77
  • F11 (Aversion) 6 .74 .36
  • F12 (Gender) 6 .81
  • F13 (K&M Importance) 8 .83 .90
  • F14 (L&G Confidence) 6 .83 .57
  • F15 (P&P Relevance) 10 .89 .76
  • F16 (P&P Enjoyment) 8 .90 .67
stages of adoption of technology
Stages of Adoption of Technology
  • Stage One: Awareness
  • Stage Two: Learning the Process
  • Stage Three: Understanding and application of the process
  • Stage Four: Familiarity and confidence
  • Stage Five: Adaptation to other contexts
  • Stage Six: Creative application to new contexts
preparing teachers to teach with technology
Preparing Teachers to Teach with Technology
  • University of North Texas College of Ed. Technology Applications Endorsement
    • 1100 Computer Applications
      • WP, SS, DB
    • 3440 Technology and the Teacher
      • Teacher Productivity
    • 4100 Computers in the Classroom
      • Technology Integration
    • 4xxx Higher level technology course
dutch 1998 vs american 1997 reliability estimates
Dutch (1998) vs. American (1997) Reliability Estimates

Factor Alpha U.S. NL #Items

F1 (Enthusiasm/Enjoyment) .95 .73 15

F2 (Anxiety) .96 .86 15

F3 (Avoidance) .90 .63 12

F4 (Email for Classroom) .95 .89 11

F5 (Neg. Impact on Society) .85 .80 11

F6 (Productivity Improvement) .93 .88 15

F7 (Semantic Perception) .94 10

emerging model three essential elements
Emerging Model - Three Essential Elements
  • Will
    • Attitudes (Anxiety, Acceptance, etc.)
  • Skill
    • Competencies
    • Teacher Training
  • Tools
    • Software/hardware
research online
Research Online
  • Http://www.tcet.unt.edu/research and Http://129.120.20.20/gknezek
    • Research studies
    • Online instruments
    • Downloadable instruments

Or contact:

Rhonda Christensen

Email: rhondac@tenet.edu

Gerald Knezek

Email: gknezek@tenet.edu