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Technology in the Academe: Teacher Attitudes and Strategies in Managing Computer Resistance. By Ma. Regina Hechanova Ma. Regina Estuar Elizabeth Grozman Arlene Ticzon. Where is computer being used in the academe?. What efforts have been done to promote technology use?.

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Technology in the Academe:Teacher Attitudes and Strategies in Managing Computer Resistance


Ma. Regina Hechanova

Ma. Regina Estuar

Elizabeth Grozman

Arlene Ticzon

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What efforts have been done to promote technology use?

  • Government contributions

    • Modernization Program by DECS (1996)

    • Center for Education and Technology

  • Private sector contributions

    • Establishment of IT educator groups

    • Donations for laboratories

    • Training for public school teachers

    • Providing ICT infrastructure and internet access to schools

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Research in ICT use

  • Effectiveness of use of ICT in the classroom

  • Accessibility Issues

  • Technology Adoption

  • Technology Management

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Variables in this study







Management of


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Previous Works

  • Technophobia

    • (Jay, 1981)

      • Individual’s resistance to talking about or even thinking about computers

      • Fear or anxiety about computers

      • Hostile or aggressive thoughts about computers

    • (Weil, Rosen, & Sears, 1987)

      • Feelings, thoughts and beliefs about present or future interaction with computers/computer related technology

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Previous Works

  • Manifestations of technophobia

    • Anxiety in using computer technology

    • Negative attitudes about computers

    • Negative cognitions

    • Critical self dialogues when interacting with or contemplating future interaction with computer

  • Technophobe

    • Severe reactions on all dimensions or mild discomfort on a single dimension

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Technology Adoption Study

  • Positive Effects

    • Facilitated student learning

    • Greater discussion and sharing

    • Increased quality of output of student

  • “Negative” Effects

    • Teaching became a more expensive endeavor

    • Content is sacrificed for communication

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How IT Use is Managed?

  • What strategies have organizations used to manage computer resistance?

    • Time, Expertise, Access, Resources, Support (Leggett & Persichitte, 1998)

    • Technology and Change in Organizations (Hechanova & Dioquino, 2003)

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Components of the Study

  • Component 1 – Measured technophobia (Weil & Rosen’s Scale)

  • Component 2 - Measured attitude towards a specific technology : online learning and teaching (Estuar’s Attitude Scale)

  • Component 3- Survey of how IT is managed in schools

    • Do you experience resistance? Why?

    • What strategies did you employ to manage resistance

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Results of Technophobia Study

  • Incidence of technophobia

    • In terms of anxiety, 1 out of 4 teachers reported high

    • More on feelings (affect) rather than thoughts (cognition)

  • Factors influencing level of technophobia

    • Type of School

      • Public school teachers more technophobic than private schools

    • Age

      • Older teachers are more technophobic than younger teachers

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Positive Attitudes

Presence of technology



Functionality of technology





Negative Attitudes



Perceived difficulty

Time consuming


Confusing, Difficult





Results of Attitude Study

Gender Difference: Female teachers view online teaching as

important but more tedious.

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Lack of Skill

Fear of technology

Difficulty in using computers

Resistance to change

Lack of exposure

Lack of awareness for value, fear of downsizing, no need for computers


Public school teachers have greater fear of technology than private school teachers

Sources of Resistance

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Providing computer training programs

Information dissemination

Ensuring user-friendly computer

Identifying computer use as a key-strategy

Requiring computer skills

Providing user support


A greater number of private schools require computer skills in hiring as compared to those in the public schools

Strategies in Managing Resistance

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  • Technophobia

    • is real in the academe

    • is manifested in terms of anxiety rather than cognition

    • is correlated with age

  • Attitudes

    • Positive attitudes focus on cognitive aspects

    • Negative attitudes focus on affect

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  • Differences in Public Schools and Private Schools

    • Incidence of technophobia

    • Fear of technology

    • Computer Skills in Hiring

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  • Resistance stems from both individual and organizational issues

  • Need for a systems approach in ensuring computer adoption in institutions

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Individual Level

Need to measure attitudes and direct strategies towards creating a more positive environment for technology use

Profile of users and non-users

Organizational Approach

Human Process



Skill Building