AIM: Were the early people of Greece more advanced than other early peoples? Do Now: Locate the Island of Crete & mainland Greece on the map. How would these people have contact with one another? Persian Empire
Roots of Greek Civilization • Minoan Culture – 3,000 B.C. • Island of Crete • Mycenaean Civilization– 2,700 B.C. • Peloponnesian Peninsula Cultural Model for… Earliest developed culture on mainland Greece!
ACTIVITY:Gallery Walk Students will visit designated stations to learn about the culture of Minoan and Mycenaean Civilizations.
Exit Slip: Were the early people of Greece more advanced than other early peoples?
AIM: What values were most important to the early Greeks? Do Now: Were the early people of Greece more advanced than other early civilizations? Provide evidence from last lesson. Persian Empire
Decline of Early Civilizations • 1400 B.C.E Minoan civilization vanished • Mycenaean’s came under attack (Dorians) • As power faded, people abandoned their cities and trade declined ~ 1100 B.C.E
Homer and the Great Legends • Homer – poet, most likely lived about 750 BCE • Credited for the works of The Iliad and The Odyssey • Homer’s tales were passed on orally from one generation to the next.
The Iliad • Chief source of information about the Trojan war • Achilles – the mightiest Greek warrior
The Odyssey • Tells of the many struggles between the struggles of the Greek hero Odysseus on his return home to his wife Penelope.
Greek Mythology • Greek gods and goddesses (polytheistic belief system) • Twelve main Olympians • Mount Olympus • Ruled every aspect of human life
Group Work As a group, read the different excerpts from The Odyssey and UNDERLINE the Greek Values identified in the text. At the bottom of every excerpt, STOP, and discuss the guiding questions. On your graphic organizer identify the Greek values, using evidence, pictures or definitions to assist you.
Comprehension Questions 1. What values seem to have been most important to the early Greeks? 2. Why do you think these values were so important? 3. Which Greek values do you think are similar to American values today? Which do you think are different? 4. Why do you think the ancient Greeks illustrated their values through epic literature?
Exit Slip: Quick Write – Write a Thesis StatementReview your ideas from today and yesterday’s lessons and think of how early people of the Aegean contributed to Greek Civilization. Write a thesis statement that expresses your thought. Remember that a thesis statement should provide the main idea for an essay.
Aim: How were Greek city-states shaped by its citizenry? Do Now: Define citizenry. What is a citizen? Who can be a citizen?
Geography Shapes Ancient Greece • Greece is located on peninsula in Southern Europe. The Balkan peninsula stretches south into the Mediterranean Sea. • Covered with rugged mountains. No long rivers. Mild climate, hot summers.
Geography Shapes Greece • VIDEO How did the geography of Greece shape the development of ancient Greek cities and culture?
Geography Shapes Greece • Polis: Greek city-state. Made up of a major city or town and its surrounding countryside. • Mountains divided Greeks from one another. • Seas provided a vital link to the outside world. • Acropolis: high city, stood on top of a hill with a great marble temple dedicated to different gods or goddesses
Asia Minor Aegean Sea Adriatic Sea +Marathon Ionian Sea Mediterranean Sea
Governing the City-States • Citizens: free residents • Between 750 BC and 500 BC, different forms of government evolved in ancient Greece • Monarchy • Aristocracy • Oligarchy • Tyranny • Democracy
AIM: How did life in Sparta compare to life in Athens? Do Now: What seems to be the main difference between growing up in Athens and Sparta?
SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES DIFFERENCES
SIMILARITIES -Direct Democracy -Only male citizens Involved in government -trade with other city-states -Education for the boys only -Boys/men served in the Military at 18 for 2 years -Women were not equal -Navy -Located by the water -Military Oligarchy -Military society -Trade and travel not allowed -Military training for all boys -Girls to be trained to be mothers of soldiers -Women obey men but they could own property and had rights. -Army -Located inland -same language -Olympics -city-states -located in Greece -same gods and religious beliefs DIFFERENCES DIFFERENCES
Regents Questions 1. The Ancient Athenians are credited (to do) with A. inventing and using the wheel B. eliminating slavery C. establishing governments that had democratic elements D. inventing the printing press
Regents Questions 2. Which ancient civilization established the basis of western democracy? A. Phoenician B. Egyptian C. Sumerian D. Greek
Regents Questions 3. The Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta A. was primarily concerned with the health of their people B. was a powerful military state C. granted universal suffrage to their people D. placed great emphasis on literature and the arts
EXIT SLIP Write a paragraph explaining if you would rather live in Athens or Sparta and why.
AIM: How many Persians were at the Battle of Thermopylae? • DO NOW: Based on what you already know about the Greek city-states, if you had to fight in a war with either Sparta or Athens, would you want to be in the Spartan army or the Athenian army? Support your answer with EVIDENCE!
. Athens and Persia
Conflict Begins A 4th century rendering of Emperor Darius
The Persian Wars • *When the Persians threatened the Greeks, they put aside their differences to defend their freedom. • 492-449 BCE, the Greeks and Persians fought a series of wars
Understanding the Persian War – 5 MAJOR EVENTS • The Battle of Marathon (LEAVE SPACE) • The Battle of Thermopylae (LEAVE SPACE) • The Battle of Salamis • The Expansion of the Persian Empire • The Ionian Revolt
The Battle of Marathon • Persians and Athenians clashed at Marathon • Persians were unexpectedly defeated • Darius’ son Xerxes planned another attack in 480 BCE
The Battle of Thermopylae • Persians vs. small group of Spartans • Spartans held off Persians for 7 days • Persians won battle • Meanwhile, Athens prepared for Persian invasion • Ultimately Greeks won
The Battle of Thermopylae • 300 Video Clip
How many Persians were at the Battle of Thermopylae? Central Historical Question
EXIT: What impact did the Persian Wars have on the development of Ancient Greece?
THREE MAJOR EFFECTS • 1) More than ever before Spartans, Athenians and residents of other Greek city-states referred to themselves collectively as “Greeks” • 2) Greeks had new level of confidence • 3) Athens enters a Golden Age
AIM: What was Athens like during its Golden Age? Do Now: What effects did the Persian Wars have on Ancient Greece?
Athens • One of the most important ancient Greek city-states • Birthplace of democracy • Modern foundations – art, literature, philosophy
The Agora • Agora = marketplace • Center of Athenian life – government buildings, temples, stoas (columned buildings) • Place for recreation • Men socialized there
Exit: • Video Summary
AIM: How did Greek thinkers, artists, and writers explore the nature of the universe and people's place in it? Do Now: Athens experienced a flourishing Golden Age – and then they collapsed. What did Athens golden age consist of?
Greek Achievements • Architecture: • Greek Columns: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian • Parthenon • Geography, Astronomy • Equator, latitude and longitude, equinoxes, eclipses • Medicine • Hippocrates – Hippocratic Oath • Zoology • Evolution, natural selection,
Achievements • Engineering • Lever, force • Mathematics • Euclid - Geometry, Pythagoras – Pythagorean Theorem • Physics • Atoms, protons, neutrons, repelling forces • Theatre, poetry & drama • Tragedies and comedies
Thinkers, Artists, Philosophers • Herodotus – historian • Thales, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle – philosophers • Logic (rational thinking) and rhetoric (art of skillful speaking) • Archimedes – inventor • Pericles – father of democracy • Homer – writer • Phidias - sculptor