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SMAW Pipe Welding Techniques. Positions. 1G 2G 5G 6G. 1F 2F 2FR 4F 5F. 1G Position. Pipe rotated, Electrode is always at the top Either a split bead or weave technique may be used. 2G Position. Pipe Axis Vertical, Weld is Horizontal, Pipe is considered in a “fixed” position.

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positions
Positions
  • 1G
  • 2G
  • 5G
  • 6G
  • 1F
  • 2F
  • 2FR
  • 4F
  • 5F
1g position
1G Position

Pipe rotated, Electrode is always at the top

Either a split bead or weave technique may be used

2g position
2G Position

Pipe Axis Vertical, Weld is Horizontal, Pipe is considered in a “fixed” position.

Always use a split bead technique

Always work from the bottom up.

5g position
5G Position

Axis of the Pipe is Horizontal, The weld in vertical.

Progression may be up or down.

A weave bead is best used.

6g position
6G Position

Pipe axis is fixed in position at a 45 degree incline. Thhe position includes flat, horizontal, vertical, and overhead welds.

A split bead tecvhnique is best used.

1f position
1F Position

Pipe is rotated. The pipe axis is at a 45 degree incline. Welding is to occur at the top of the pipe.

Split bead or weave technique may be used.

2f position
2F Position

Fixed Position

Best to use a split bead technique

2fr position
2FR Position

A split bead technique is best used.

Rotated

4f position
4F Position

A split bead technique is best used

5f position
5F Position

Not Rotated. Progression may be up or down.

Split beads or weaves can be used on 5F-up welds, split beads are best used on 5F-down welds.

slide12

Fill Pass

Cover Pass

Root Pass

Hot Pass

slide13

Always work from the bottom up when using the split bead technique

Always be careful not to create a tight area where slag may get trapped under the next weld.

It is better to weave slightly than to leave a tight area.

Plan your sequence of beads!

slide14

Always work toward the smaller side of the fillet. (It will be easier to get to)

Always be careful not to create a tight area where slag may get trapped under the next weld.

It is better to weave slightly than to leave a tight area.

Plan your sequence of beads!

techniques
Techniques
  • Stringer (push, drag, or whip), or Weave
progression vertical
Progression (vertical)
  • Up
    • deeper penetration
    • Higher deposit rate (lb/hr)
    • Use near 90 degree travel angle or slightly up
  • Down
    • faster (point to point)
    • less penetration for thin metal
    • less dilution
    • Use steep drag angle
travel speed
Travel Speed
  • Stay on the leading edge of the puddle
dimensions
Dimensions
  • Reinforcement Height
    • ASME flush - 1/16
    • AWS flush 1/8
  • Reinforcement Width
    • 1/16” past bevel edge
  • Smooth transition at weld toe (45o max)
backing
Backing
  • Metallic
    • backing ring
    • consumable inserts
welding grooves with inserts
Welding grooves with Inserts
  • Keep the root opening wide
  • Make the root pass in one bead
  • Avoid tight areas at the weld toes
welding a pjp groove
Welding a PJP groove
  • Works great for limiting restrictions inside pipes
  • make up for loss of wall on reinforcement
root openings
Root Openings
  • Small will allow more amperage which will in turn make welding smoother and easier, as well as easier arc starts.
  • Larger root openings will allow more penetration.
root faces
Root Faces
  • Larger root faces will allow more amperage which will in turn make welding smoother and easier, as well as easier arc starts.
  • Smaller root faces will allow more penetration.
tacking tack grinding
Tacking, Tack Grinding
  • 3/4” long
  • feather both ends
  • clean and flatten tops
  • start on top, burn through before end
  • run completely onto tack before stopping
  • interpass grind lumps off before next pass
  • stagger all starts and stops betoeen passes
  • stagger all starts and stops between beads in a single pass
  • Don’t overgrind tacks.
slide26

Butt Joint Preperation

(With Backing)

Root faces - 0

450 included angle

Remove all mill scales and rust

Tacking - not in groove

Tack away from coupon area.

Flush on backing

slide27

1/16-1/8

Butt Joint Preperation

(Joints without backing)

600 included angle

Root faces

Tacking

Feather Tacks

open root technique
Open Root Technique
  • Use root opening to allow increase in amperage for smoother welding
  • Whip backwards for penetration
  • Whip forwards to reduce penetration
  • Do Not Weave a root pass.
  • Maintain a short arc gap
  • Stay slightly in front of the puddle at all times. Use the keyholing technique.
restarts
Restarts
  • Stagger all starts and stops or use runon, runoff tabs
  • Feather all restarts & start on top, or start in front and remelt
  • Don’t restart in a coupon area.
  • Also stagger all beads on a single pass.
  • Use a longer arc length when starting a weld.

Compare interpass grinding techniques vs. no interpass grinding.

craters
Craters
  • Fill craters by welding into the previous weld start
  • Use a short arc length to control heat.
electrode angles
Electrode Angles
  • Up Progression - always point toward center of Pipe
  • Down Progression - use a steep drag angle
slide34

Arc Length

  • Longer arc lengths = increased puddle heat, flatter welds, deeper penetration
  • Shorter arc lengths = less puddle heat, flatter welds, less penetration
  • Use arc length to control puddle size, penetration, and burn through.
  • Normal arc length is 1/16” - 1/8”
  • Use a slightly longer arc length during a start or restart.
helpful tips

Helpful Tips

  • Clean your Welding Hood lens
  • Drape the cable over your shoulder or knee
  • Get Comfortable
  • Watch the puddle, not the arc
  • Concentrate on steady travel speed and arc length