Warm Season Grasses Seed Research of Oregon Helen Lucas Warm SeasonTurfgrass Species Common Name Scientific Name Pollination Ploidy Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon var. Cross Allotetraploid=36 Couchgrass dactylon Transvaalensis C. transvaalensis Cross Diploid=18
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Warm Season Grasses Seed Research of Oregon Helen Lucas
Warm SeasonTurfgrass Species • Common Name Scientific Name Pollination Ploidy • Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon var. Cross Allotetraploid=36 Couchgrass dactylon • Transvaalensis C. transvaalensis Cross Diploid=18 • bermudagrass • Zoysiagrass Zoysia ssp. Cross Tetraploid = 40 • Seashore paspalum Paspalum vaginatum Cross Diploid=20 • Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum Apomict Tetraploid = 40 • Cross Diploid = 20 • St. Augustinegrass Stenotaphrum Cross Diploid = 18 • (Buffalograss) secundatum Polyploid = 30
Warm SeasonTurfgrass Species • Common Name Scientific Name Pollination Ploidy • Centipedegrass Eremochloe ophiuroides Cross Diploid = 18 • American Buffalograss Buchloe dactyloides Dioecious 20, 40, 60 • Kikuyagrass Pennisetum clandestinum Cross Tetraploid = 36 • Saltgrass Distichlis spicata Cross 2n = 36, 40
Warm Season Grass Breeding • Less total breeding public and private • Primary species couchgrass (bermudagrass), zoysia, buffalograss, seashore paspalum • Additional species centipedegrass, St. Augustine, bahiagrass • Most improved cultivars are vegetative - increase of single improved plants. • Sterile, low seed yields, difficult to process seeds, excellent vegetative growth, uniformity • New improvements in seeded types
Bermudagrass Breeding • Sterile triploid hybrids between Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon and C. transvaalensis primary varieties • USDA Tifton, GA - Tifgreen, Tifway, Tifdwarf, TifSport, TifEagle • Winter-hardy Kansas State - Midway, MidIron, Midlawn • Improved seeded cultivars - cold-hardiness, spring dead spot resistance, uniformity, speed of germination, leaf spot resistance, color, density, seed yield - Quality approaching vegetative cultivars
SRO Seeded Bermudagrass Products Yukon (exp. OKS91-11) SR 9554 LaPaloma (exp. SRX 9500) LaPrima Blend – blends are not included in NTEP Seeding the Future …….
New projects golf or sports fields Renovations – far more acreage existing common, turf-type seeded or vegetative bermuda Entire South - Spring Recovery re-establish bermuda base for better Spring transition Seeded Turf-Type Bermudas
Southern Bermuda Belt non-uniform appearance of existing bermuda upgrade to improved variety (disease tolerance, color/texture, divot repair, etc.) Spring transition difficulties Transition Zone drought, salt or disease stress on existing rye/blue Winter kill of your existing bermuda variety Seeded Turf-Type Bermudas
Divot Repair Data Tifway 419 Tifsport
Spring Dead Spot ResistanceCritical South AND Transition • Yukon & Midlawn • Highest resistance • Riviera & TifSport • Moderate resistance • Princess 77 & Tifway • Most susceptible
“The most vigorously germinating cultivars under both drought and control conditions were (in decreasing order): YUKON (OKS91-11), Sahara, Mirage, and Pyramid. Four other cultivars exhibited low cumulative germination rates under all conditions: Panama (PST-R63), Savannah (PST-R64), Princess (FMC-77), and Sultan (FMC-8).” Dr. Ken Marcum – Univ. of AZ Drought StressReduced Water SuppliesChoose the Right Variety
Zoysiagrass Breeding • Finest textured, highest uniformity in vegetative cultivars - Zoysia japonica, Z. matrella and Z. pacifica • Texas A&M University - Reduced water use, cold-hardiness, shade tolerance, improved establishment and recovery • Improved seeded cultivars - Z. japonica and Z. sinica have larger seadheads more useful for seed production • More uniform than common, use on sports fields and homelawns