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Warm Season Grasses Seed Research of Oregon Helen Lucas Warm SeasonTurfgrass Species Common Name Scientific Name Pollination Ploidy Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon var. Cross Allotetraploid=36 Couchgrass dactylon Transvaalensis C. transvaalensis Cross Diploid=18

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Warm SeasonTurfgrass Species

  • Common Name Scientific Name Pollination Ploidy
  • Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon var. Cross Allotetraploid=36 Couchgrass dactylon
  • Transvaalensis C. transvaalensis Cross Diploid=18
  • bermudagrass
  • Zoysiagrass Zoysia ssp. Cross Tetraploid = 40
  • Seashore paspalum Paspalum vaginatum Cross Diploid=20
  • Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum Apomict Tetraploid = 40
  • Cross Diploid = 20
  • St. Augustinegrass Stenotaphrum Cross Diploid = 18
  • (Buffalograss) secundatum Polyploid = 30

Warm SeasonTurfgrass Species

  • Common Name Scientific Name Pollination Ploidy
  • Centipedegrass Eremochloe ophiuroides Cross Diploid = 18
  • American Buffalograss Buchloe dactyloides Dioecious 20, 40, 60
  • Kikuyagrass Pennisetum clandestinum Cross Tetraploid = 36
  • Saltgrass Distichlis spicata Cross 2n = 36, 40

Warm Season Grass Breeding

  • Less total breeding public and private
  • Primary species couchgrass (bermudagrass), zoysia, buffalograss, seashore paspalum
  • Additional species centipedegrass, St. Augustine, bahiagrass
  • Most improved cultivars are vegetative - increase of single improved plants.
    • Sterile, low seed yields, difficult to process seeds, excellent vegetative growth, uniformity
  • New improvements in seeded types

Bermudagrass Breeding

  • Sterile triploid hybrids between Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon and C. transvaalensis primary varieties
    • USDA Tifton, GA - Tifgreen, Tifway, Tifdwarf, TifSport, TifEagle
    • Winter-hardy Kansas State - Midway, MidIron, Midlawn
  • Improved seeded cultivars - cold-hardiness, spring dead spot resistance, uniformity, speed of germination, leaf spot resistance, color, density, seed yield - Quality approaching vegetative cultivars
seeding the future
SRO Seeded Bermudagrass Products

Yukon (exp. OKS91-11)

SR 9554

LaPaloma (exp. SRX 9500)

LaPrima Blend – blends are not included in NTEP

Seeding the Future …….
seeded turf type bermudas
New projects

golf or sports fields

Renovations – far more acreage

existing common, turf-type seeded or vegetative bermuda

Entire South - Spring Recovery

re-establish bermuda base for better

Spring transition

Seeded Turf-Type Bermudas
seeded turf type bermudas8
Southern Bermuda Belt

non-uniform appearance of existing bermuda

upgrade to improved variety

(disease tolerance, color/texture, divot repair, etc.)

Spring transition difficulties

Transition Zone

drought, salt or disease stress on existing rye/blue

Winter kill of your existing bermuda variety

Seeded Turf-Type Bermudas
divot repair data
Divot Repair Data

Tifway 419


spring dead spot resistance critical south and transition
Spring Dead Spot ResistanceCritical South AND Transition
  • Yukon & Midlawn
  • Highest resistance
  • Riviera & TifSport
  • Moderate resistance
  • Princess 77 & Tifway
  • Most susceptible
drought stress reduced water supplies choose the right variety
“The most vigorously germinating cultivars under both drought and control conditions were (in decreasing order): YUKON (OKS91-11), Sahara, Mirage, and Pyramid. Four other cultivars exhibited low cumulative germination rates under all conditions: Panama (PST-R63), Savannah (PST-R64), Princess (FMC-77), and Sultan (FMC-8).” Dr. Ken Marcum – Univ. of AZDrought StressReduced Water SuppliesChoose the Right Variety

Zoysiagrass Breeding

  • Finest textured, highest uniformity in vegetative cultivars - Zoysia japonica, Z. matrella and Z. pacifica
    • Texas A&M University - Reduced water use, cold-hardiness, shade tolerance, improved establishment and recovery
  • Improved seeded cultivars - Z. japonica and Z. sinica have larger seadheads more useful for seed production
    • More uniform than common, use on sports fields and homelawns