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Forest tree seed research. Research Organisations specialising in above tend to be …. Independent Isolated from seed research more widely & Timber Industry/Forest Environment focused. DIFFICULTIES WITH TREE SEED RESEARCH. Poor viability Considerable dormancy

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forest tree seed research
Forest tree seed research

Research Organisations specialising in above tend to be …

  • Independent
  • Isolated
  • from seed research more widely
  • &
  • Timber Industry/Forest Environment focused
difficulties with tree seed research
DIFFICULTIES WITH TREE SEED RESEARCH
  • Poor viability
  • Considerable dormancy
  • Full germination can take a long time
  • Non-homogeneous seed lots
  • Limited seed supply
  • Variable supply (Inter-Annual Variation)
slide4

Woody seed coat

Massive in relation to embryo

Germination requires 3 years

1 cm

seed storage survival
SEED STORAGE SURVIVAL
  • Three distinct categories of seed storage behaviour
  • Orthodox
  • Intermediate
  • Recalcitrant

Economy of Nature and the Search for Patterns

If all 250,000 spp of flowering plants were unique in terms of post-collection physiology – then agriculture, horticulture and forestry would probably never have developed!

orthodox
ORTHODOX
  • Not just desiccation tolerance to very low moisture contents, but ….
  • Longevity increases in a predictable way with reduction in seed storage temperature and/or moisture content

(Roberts, E.H. 1973, Seed Sci. & Tech.1, 499-514)

acer platanoides
Acer platanoides

a.Relation between seed moisture content (%, w.b.) and viability of Acer platanoides harvested at maturity (31 Oct. 1991) (Hong, T.D. and Ellis, R.H. 1992. Seed Science Research, 2, 169-172.)

b. Negative logarithmic relation between moisture content (%, w.b) and longevity (, d) in hermetic storage of Acer platanoides seeds at 52°C (Dickie, J.B., May, B., Morris, S.V.A., Titley, S.E. 1991. Seed Science Research 1: 149-162).

recalcitrant
RECALCITRANT

Acer pseudoplatanus

1.Hong, T.D. and Ellis, R.H., 1990. New Phytologist, 116, 589-596.

desiccation sensitivity
Desiccation sensitivity

Pedro Leon-Lobos, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Reading, 2001

intermediate seed storage behaviour
INTERMEDIATE SEED STORAGE BEHAVIOUR

Seed storage longevity benefits to a considerable extent from desiccation and/or reduction in temperature, but longevity is decreased by further reduction in temperature below about 10°C and/or by further reduction in moisture content below apparent optimum values in equilibrium with about 40-50% relative humidity.

Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D. and Roberts, E.H. 1990. Journal of Experimental Botany, 41, 1167-1174.

coffea arabica
Coffea arabica

Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D. and Roberts, E.H. 1990. Journal of Experimental Botany, 41, 1167-1174.

oil palm elaeis guineensis
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)

Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D., Roberts, E.H. and Soetisna, U. 1991. Seed Science Research, 1, 99-104.

royal palm oreodoxa regia
Royal palm (Oreodoxa regia)

Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D., Roberts, E.H. and Soetisna, U. 1991. Seed Science Research, 1, 99-104.

fagus sylvatica temperate tree species with intermediate seed storage behaviour
Fagus sylvaticaTemperate tree species with intermediate seed storage behaviour

(a)

León-Lobos, P. and Ellis, R.H. 2002

Seed Sci. Res. 12: 31-37.

(b)

  • observed viability after 730 days of hermetic storage
  • estimated viability after 730 days from a model fitted to observations throughout the 730-day storage period
tree seed science research project with vietnam darwin initiative for the survival of species
Tree Seed Science Research Project with Vietnam (Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species)

Among 33 tree species endemic to Vietnam investigated,

16 showed orthodox seed storage behaviour

9 showed recalcitrant seed storage behaviour

8 showed intermediate seed storage behaviour

UAF: Ms Truong Mai Hong, Mr Nguyen Duc Xuan Chuong, Dr Le Quang Hung

Forest Seed Enterprise: Ms Banh Ngoc Tam, Ms Vo Le Tam

The University of Reading: Dr Tran Dang Hong, Professor Richard Ellis

species with orthodox seeds
Species with orthodox seeds

Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species

species with orthodox seeds1
Species with orthodox seeds

Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz.) Craib.(Leguminosae)

Adenanthera pavonina L. (Leguminosae)

Cassia fistula L. (Leguminosae)

Cassia javanica L. (Leguminosae)

Dalbergia bariaensis Pierre (Leguminosae)

Peltophorum pterocarpum(Leguminosae)

Sindora siamensis Teysm. Ex Miq. (Leguminosae)

Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae)

slide22

Diospyros mollisGriff. (Ebenaceae)

Melaleuca cajuputi(Myrtaceae)

Chukrasia tabularisA. Juss. (Meliaceae)

Pinus khasyaRoyle(Pinaceae)

Pinus massonianaLambert(Pinaceae)

Pinus merkusiiJungh. & de Vriese(Pinaceae)

Dracontomelon DuperreanumPierre(Anacardiaceae)

Sterculia foetida L. (Sterculiaceae)

species with intermediate seeds
Species with intermediate seeds

Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species

species with intermediate seeds1
Species with intermediate seeds

Carissa carandas L. (Apocynaceae)

Hydnocarpus anthelmintica(Flacourtiaceae)

Mimusops elengii L.(Sapotaceae)

Aphanamixis polystachya J.N. Parker(Meliaceae)

Averrhoa carambola(Oxalydaceae)

Citrofortunella microcarpa(Rutaceae)

Citrus grandis(Rutaceae)

Anisoptera cochinchinensis(Dipterocarpaceae)

species with recalcitrant seeds
Species with recalcitrant seeds

Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species

species with recalcitrant seeds1
Species with recalcitrant seeds

Beilschmiedia Roxburghiana Nees. (Lauraceae)

Caryota mitis Lour. (Palmae)

Melanorrhoea laccifera (Anacardiaceae)

Melanorrhoea usitata (Anacardiaceae)

Dipterocarpus chartaceus (Dipterocarpaceae)

Hopea odorata (Dipterocarpaceae)

Machilus odoratissimus (Lauraceae)

Syzygium cinereum (Myrtaceae)

Dimocarpus spp. (Sapindaceae)

picea sitchensis

Effect of duration of storage at 3 0C on viability (▲) and ability to germinate at 10 0C of Picea sitchensis [Bong.] Carr. Untreated seeds () were prechilled for 14 weeks and then tested for ability to germinate (), redried and samples tested for ability to germinate (●) during subsequent air-dry storage. Results for sub-samples prechilled for a second 14-week period after 121 weeks of air-dry storage (, ) are also shown

Picea sitchensis

Jones, S.K., Gosling, P.G., and Ellis, R.H. 1998. Seed Sci Res. 8: 113-122.

picea sitchensis1

From: Jones, S.K., Ellis, R.H., and Gosling, P.G. 1997.

Seed Sci. Res. 7: 351-358.

Picea sitchensis

Change in ability of seeds of Picea sitchensis [Bong.] Carr. to germinate at 10 0C after moist pre-treatment at a constant temperature of 20 0C in two separate experiments (●, ■). Solid line shows a multiplicative model for changes in ability to germinate with period of moist pre-treatment at 20 0C comprising four submodels: loss in viability; loss in conditional dormancy; re-imposition of conditional dormancy; and finally loss of this re-imposed conditional dormancy.

slide29

Dormancy cycling is not unique to this species

See:

Totterdell, S., and Roberts, E.H. 1979.

Effects of low temperatures on the loss of innate dormancy and the development of induced dormancy in seeds of Rumex obtusifolius L. and Rumex crispus L.

Pl. Cell & Env. 2: 131-137.

but has not been widely investigated.

development of desiccation tolerance in orthodox seeds
DEVELOPMENT OF DESICCATION TOLERANCE IN ORTHODOX SEEDS

Acer platanoides

1.Hong, T.D. and Ellis, R.H. 1992. Seed Science Research, 2, 169-172.

survival curves of kapok sumauma ceiba pentandra l gaertn harvested at different dates
Survival curves of kapok (sumauma, Ceiba pentandra [L.] Gaertn.) harvested at different dates

Hermetic storage at 40°C with 15.0 (0.2)% mc

Lima, M. de J.V.Jr., Ellis, R.H. and Ferraz, I.D.K. 2000. Seed Sci. & Tech., 28, 739-751.

effect of drying rate on desiccation tolerance of immature seeds

Acer platanoides

Harvested at mass maturity, about 40 d before natural shedding

EFFECT OF DRYING RATE ON DESICCATION TOLERANCE OF IMMATURE SEEDS

Hong, T.D. and Ellis, R.H. 1992. Seed Science Research, 2, 169-172.

effect of post harvest treatments on survival of immature seeds of cedrela odorata
Effect of post-harvest treatments on survival of immature seeds of Cedrela odorata

Lima, M.de J.V. Jr., Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D. and Ferraz, I.D.K. 1998. SeedSci. & Tech. 26, 813-821.

slide34

Onion

Sugar beet

Barley

Wheat

Lower-moisture-content limit for cropsEllis, R.H., Hong, T.D. and Roberts, E.H. 1989. Annals of Botany, 63, 601-611.
lower moisture content limit in two tree species
Lower-moisture-content limit in two tree species

Pedro Leon-Lobos, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Reading, 2001

lower moisture content limit for fungal spores
Lower-moisture-content limit for fungal spores

Hong, T.D., Jenkins, N.E., Ellis, R.H. and Moore, D. 1998. Annals of Botany, 81, 625-630.

lower moisture content limit for pollen
Lower-moisture-content limit for pollen

Hong, T.D., Ellis, R.H., Buitink, J., Walters, C., Hoekstra, F.A. and Crane, J. 1999. Annals of Botany, 83, 167-173.

acknowledgements
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

IUFRO Symposium organisers

Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species

Truong Mai Hong, Mr Nguyen Duc Xuan Chuong, Dr Le Quang Hung,

Ms Banh Ngoc Tam, Ms Vo Le Tam

Dr Pedro Leon, Dr Manuel Lima, Dr Steve Jones

and particularly Dr Tran Dang Hong