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RNAP: A Resource Negotiation and Pricing Protocol Xin Wang, Henning Schulzrinne Columbia University xwang@ctr.columbia.edu, schulzrinne@cs.columbia.edu (This work was supported by Hughes Research Lab) What is RNAP ? Assumption : network provides a choice of delivery services to user

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rnap a resource negotiation and pricing protocol

RNAP: A Resource Negotiation and Pricing Protocol

Xin Wang, Henning Schulzrinne

Columbia University

xwang@ctr.columbia.edu, schulzrinne@cs.columbia.edu

(This work was supported by Hughes Research Lab)

RNAP, X. Wang et al

what is rnap
What is RNAP?
  • Assumption: network provides a choice of delivery services to user
    • e.g. diff-serv, int-serv, best-effort, with different levels of QoS
    • with a pricing structure (may be usage-sensitive) for each.
  • RNAP: a protocol through which the user and network (or two network domains) negotiate network delivery services.
    • Network -> User: communicate availability of services; price quotations and accumulated charges
    • User -> Network: request/re-negotiate specific services for user flows.
  • Underlying Mechanism: combine network pricing with traffic engineering

RNAP, X. Wang et al

outline
Outline
  • Motivation
  • Basic RNAP messaging
  • Protocol details
    • Architectures
    • Scaling in Core Domains
    • Advance reservation
    • Pricing and charging
  • Experimental Results
  • Summary of Protocol Features
  • Future work

RNAP, X. Wang et al

motivation
Motivation
  • If multiple delivery service types are available, a flexible service selection and request mechanism is desirable.
  • BBE services need pricing and charging support.
  • Selecting and requesting a service at an agreed-upon price involves negotiation between user and network

RNAP, X. Wang et al

motivation cont d
Motivation (Cont’d)
  • Dynamic resource negotiation capability and congestion sensitive pricing are desirable
    • Pricing signals congestion - allows safe and graceful QoS degradation OR increased spending to keep stable service
    • Allows better resource utilization- dynamic re-negotiation allows higher utilization as resources need not be requested/provisioned conservatively
    • Allows network resources to be obtained immediately - even during congestion (at high cost), e.g., urgent phone call
    • Network can quickly recover from unexpected events - such as network failure by re-negotiating with users

RNAP, X. Wang et al

slide6

Typical Message Sequence

Query: User enquires about available services, prices

Query

Quotation

Quotation: Network specifies services supported, prices

Reserve

Reserve: User requests service(s) for flow(s) (Flow Id-Service-Price triplets)

Commit

Quotation

Commit: Network admits the service request at a specific price or denies it (Flow Id-Service-Status-Price)

Periodic re-negotiation

Reserve

Commit

Close: tears down negotiation session

Close

Release: release the resources

Release

RNAP, X. Wang et al

architecture centralized
Architecture-Centralized

(RNAP-C)

NRN

NRN

NRN

HRN

HRN

S1

R1

AD - B

AD - A

TD

Network Resource Negotiator

Internal Router

NRN

Edge Router

Host Resource Negotiator

HRN

Host

RNAP Messages

RNAP, X. Wang et al

slide8

Architecture-Centralized

(RNAP-C)

Query

NRN

NRN

NRN

HRN

HRN

S1

R1

AD - B

AD - A

TD

Network Resource Negotiator

Internal Router

NRN

Edge Router

Host Resource Negotiator

HRN

Host

RNAP Messages

RNAP, X. Wang et al

slide9

Architecture-Centralized

(RNAP-C)

Quotation

NRN

NRN

NRN

HRN

HRN

S1

R1

AD - B

AD - A

TD

Network Resource Negotiator

Internal Router

NRN

Edge Router

Host Resource Negotiator

HRN

Host

RNAP Messages

RNAP, X. Wang et al

slide10

Architecture-Centralized

(RNAP-C)

Reserve

NRN

NRN

NRN

HRN

HRN

S1

R1

AD - B

AD - A

TD

Network Resource Negotiator

Internal Router

NRN

Edge Router

Host Resource Negotiator

HRN

Host

RNAP Messages

RNAP, X. Wang et al

slide11

Architecture-Centralized

(RNAP-C)

Commit

NRN

NRN

NRN

HRN

HRN

S1

R1

AD - B

AD - A

TD

Network Resource Negotiator

Internal Router

NRN

Edge Router

Host Resource Negotiator

HRN

Host

RNAP Messages

RNAP, X. Wang et al

end to end messaging
End-to-End Messaging
  • Sender HRN sends Query to access NRN; forwarded all the way to last-hop NRN
  • Last-hop NRN builds and sends Quotation message upstream; forwarded from NRN to NRN - quoted prices incremented at each NRN.
  • Sender HRN sends Reserve message to access NRN; forwarded downstream to to last-hop NRN
  • Last-hop NRN builds and sends Commit message upstream; forwarded from NRN to NRN - committed prices, accumulated charges incremented, or service request denied, at each NRN.

RNAP, X. Wang et al

architecture distributed
Architecture - Distributed

(RNAP-D)

HRN

HRN

R1

AD - B

AD - A

TD

Internal Router

Edge Router

Host

RNAP Messages

RNAP, X. Wang et al

slide14

Architecture - Distributed

(RNAP-D)

HRN

HRN

R1

AD - B

AD - A

TD

Internal Router

Edge Router

Host

RNAP Messages

RNAP, X. Wang et al

slide15

Architecture - Distributed

(RNAP-D)

HRN

HRN

R1

AD - B

AD - A

TD

Internal Router

Edge Router

Host

RNAP Messages

RNAP, X. Wang et al

scaling in core domains
Scaling in Core Domains
  • Direct Aggregation
    • At boundary of access and core networks, map flow-level resource requests with same destination network to a single aggregate-level request.
    • Inside core network, process aggregate RNAP messages only, tunnel flow-level RNAP messages.
    • At edge of destination network, terminate aggregate-level RNAP message, re-activate flow-level RNAP messages.
    • Aggregate RNAP sessions fewer in number, larger resource requests, longer negotiation interval -> less overhead.

RNAP, X. Wang et al

slide17

Example: Aggregation

50

50

100

100

50

50

NRN

NRN

NRN

150

150

HRN

HRN

100

100

HRN

AD - B

R2

AD - A

HRN

RNAP, X. Wang et al

scaling in core domains cont d
Scaling in Core Domains (Cont’d)
  • Block Negotiation
    • Aggregate resources are added/given up in large blocks, to minimize negotiation overhead and reduce network dynamics

Bandwidth

time

RNAP, X. Wang et al

advance reservation
Advance Reservation
  • Similar messaging sequence, reserve resources in advance for a specified future time
  • Price can be different from immediate reservation
  • Re-negotiation
    • “sell back” or “buy back”
    • Possible penalty or reward
  • Useful for resource negotiation between domains

RNAP, X. Wang et al

pricing and charging
Pricing and Charging
  • How does the network arrive at a price?
  • How will RNAP collect and communicate pricing and charging information?

RNAP, X. Wang et al

price and charge formulation
Price and Charge Formulation
  • Router or NRN maintains state information
    • Flow Id, negotiated price, charge for last negotiation interval, accumulated charge
  • e2e price and charge collation
    • negotiation message passing through router/NRN uses state information to increment price/charge fields
    • Quotation message: carry estimated price for each quoted service
    • Commit message: carry accumulated charge for preceding negotiation interval, committed price for next interval

RNAP, X. Wang et al

price and charge formulation in a rnap c domain
Price and Charge Formulation in a RNAP-C Domain
  • Alternatives:
    • NRN does admission control and price computation
      • forms price based on topology, routing and configuration policies, network load
    • Ingress router does admission control and price computation
      • may determine internal router loads through egress-to-ingress Probe messages
    • Boundary and internal routers collect local prices/charges through intra-domain signaling protocol (YESSIR/RSVP).

RNAP, X. Wang et al

example price formulation in rnap c
Example: Price Formulation in RNAP-C

Table 2

Table 1

Resource Table

Domain Routing Table

ER1

R1

R1

ER2

NextHop

NextHop

(C, BW, Q, P)

(C, BW, Q, P)

Dest

1, 3, 30, 2

ER2

R1

ER2

ER1

R1

1, 2, 20, 1

Step1: determine a path (Table1)

C: service class

BW: average bandwidth (Mb)

Q: average queue length

P: price ($/Mb)

NRN

Step2: accumulate price along

the path (Table 2)

R1

ER2

ER1

Step 3: send total price

( $3/Mb )

R2

R3

RNAP, X. Wang et al

TD

shared and multicast charging
Shared and Multicast Charging
  • Senders and receivers can share the total cost
  • Indicate willingness to pay by setting ChargeFraction field in Query/Reserve message
  • Request is rejected if sum of Charge Fraction fields is <1.

RNAP, X. Wang et al

pricing strategy
Pricing Strategy
  • Reservation_charge = holding_charge + usage_charge + congestion_charge
    • holding charge: charge for reservation
    • usage charge: charge for resource consumption
      • also dependent on service type, elasticity
    • congestion charge: charge for resource competition
      • resource overbooking
      • buffer overflow
  • Long-term high price
  • Resource re-provisioning (?)

RNAP, X. Wang et al

testbed setup
Testbed Setup

FreeBSD with routed, CBQ, RNAP

R1

S1

Rb

Ra

R2

S2

10 Mb

R3

S3

Embedded RNAP in RSVP Policy Data for prototype

RSVP

RNAP

Quotation

Path

Reserve

Resv

Commit

ResvErr

RNAP, X. Wang et al

slide27

Evolution of Network Price and Total Resource Reservation

Total bandwidth: 4Mb/s t1: total reservation 2Mb/s t4: total reservation 2Mb/s Targeted bandwidth: t2: total reservation 3Mb/s t5: stabilized

70% (2.8 Mb) t3: stabilized

2800

Total bandwidth reservation

Price

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

RNAP, X. Wang et al

slide28

Throughput of Sessions Sharing Bandwidth

Fairness sharing of bandwidth for applications with the same requirement and price sensitivity

S1

S2

S3

RNAP, X. Wang et al

summary of protocol features
Summary of Protocol Features
  • A protocol that enables service negotiation
    • multiple services, pricing, charging
  • Supports centralized and distributed network architectures.
  • Provides dynamic negotiation capability
    • Periodic re-negotiation capability
    • Flexible negotiation period
    • User can disable/enable negotiation at any time

RNAP, X. Wang et al

summary of protocol features cont d
Summary of Protocol Features (Cont’d)
  • Pricing and charging capability
    • Price and charge formulation, collation, communication to user
    • Charging mode: sender, receiver, or both
  • Flexibility of service selection
    • Multiple services: int-serv, diff-serv, best-effort
    • Different granularities of reservation: flow, aggregate level
    • Multi-party negotiation: senders, receivers, both
    • Stand alone, or embedded inside other protocols

RNAP, X. Wang et al

summary of protocol features cont d31
Summary of Protocol Features (Cont’d)
  • Scalability
    • independent of hop count; aggregation in the core
  • Price predictability
    • Price is fixed for the service during a negotiation period
  • Reliability
    • Soft state for synchronous messages, liveness tracking
    • Retransmission of asynchronous messages
    • Server backup and information retrieval

RNAP, X. Wang et al

future work
Future Work
  • Complete implementation
  • Large system performance evaluation

RNAP, X. Wang et al