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Proprioceptive roll and pitch interact in contributing to visual tilt-induced effects. Jennifer E. Corbett & James T. Enns The University of British Columbia Visual and proprioceptive information calibrate our sense of upright.

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proprioceptive roll and pitch interact in contributing to visual tilt induced effects
Proprioceptive roll and pitch interact in contributing to visual tilt-induced effects.

Jennifer E. Corbett & James T. Enns

The University of British Columbia

visual and proprioceptive information calibrate our sense of upright3
Visual and proprioceptive information calibrate our sense of upright.
  • We rely on:
  • The tilt of the surrounding visual environment(visual
  • orientation cues)
visual and proprioceptive information calibrate our sense of upright4
Visual and proprioceptive information calibrate our sense of upright.
  • We rely on:
  • The tilt of the surrounding visual environment(visual
  • orientation cues)
visual and proprioceptive information calibrate our sense of upright5
Visual and proprioceptive information calibrate our sense of upright.
  • We rely on:
  • The tilt of the surrounding visual environment(visual
  • orientation cues)
  • &
  • Our sense of the body’s position in space (proprioception)
visual and proprioceptive information calibrate our sense of upright6
Visual and proprioceptive information calibrate our sense of upright.
  • We rely on:
  • The tilt of the surrounding visual environment(visual
  • orientation cues)
  • &
  • Our sense of the body’s position in space (proprioception)
visual and proprioceptive information calibrate our sense of upright7
Visual and proprioceptive information calibrate our sense of upright.
  • We rely on:
  • The tilt of the surrounding visual environment(visual
  • orientation cues)
  • &
  • Our sense of the body’s position in space (proprioception)

To determine our

perceptions of upright.

slide8

Mystery Spots and funhouses are everyday illustrations of how our perception of orientation may arise from an interaction between visual information and our proprioceptive sense.

slide9

Mystery Spots and funhouses are everyday illustrations of how our perception of orientation may arise from an interaction between visual information and our proprioceptive sense.

The visual tilt of the cabin

slide10

Mystery Spots and funhouses are everyday illustrations of how our perception of orientation may arise from an interaction between visual information and our proprioceptive sense.

The visual tilt of the cabin and the observer’s tilt inside the cabin

slide11

Mystery Spots and funhouses are everyday illustrations of how our perception of orientation may arise from an interaction between visual information and our proprioceptive sense.

The visual tilt of the cabin and the observer’s tilt inside the cabin

affect perceptions of upright.

in the present study13
In the present study…

We examined how the roll (clockwise or counterclockwise rotation along the image plane)

Roll

in the present study14
In the present study…

We examined how the roll (clockwise or counterclockwise rotation along the image plane)

Roll

in the present study15
In the present study…

We examined how the roll (clockwise or counterclockwise rotation along the image plane)

Roll

in the present study16
In the present study…

We examined how the roll (clockwise or counterclockwise rotation along the image plane) and pitch (rotation up or down in the frontal plane) of the observer

Pitch

in the present study17
In the present study…

We examined how the roll (clockwise or counterclockwise rotation along the image plane) and pitch (rotation up or down in the frontal plane) of the observer

Pitch

in the present study18
In the present study…

We examined how the roll (clockwise or counterclockwise rotation along the image plane) and pitch (rotation up or down in the frontal plane) of the observer

Pitch

in the present study19

Pitch

Roll

In the present study…

We examined how the roll (clockwise or counterclockwise rotation along the image plane) and pitch (rotation up or down in the frontal plane) of the observer interact with tilted visual cues

in the present study20
In the present study…

We examined how the roll (clockwise or counterclockwise rotation along the image plane) and pitch (rotation up or down in the frontal plane) of the observer interact with tilted visual cues to produce observers’ perceptions of orientation.

Pitch

Roll

slide22

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948)
slide23

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity)

True vertical

slide24

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity) and the
  • visual tilt of the environment are different,

Visual tilt

True vertical

slide25

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity) and the
  • visual tilt of the environment are different, visual tilt will influence observers’
  • perceived vertical = The tilt induced effect.

Perceived vertical

Visual tilt

True vertical

slide26

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity) and the
  • visual tilt of the environment are different, visual tilt will influence observers’
  • perceived vertical = The tilt induced effect.
  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
slide27

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity) and the
  • visual tilt of the environment are different, visual tilt will influence observers’
  • perceived vertical = The tilt induced effect.
  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.

Manipulating one dimension does not affect the influence of the other dimension:

slide28

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity) and the
  • visual tilt of the environment are different, visual tilt will influence observers’
  • perceived vertical = The tilt induced effect.
  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.

Manipulating one dimension does not affect the influence of the other dimension:

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

slide29

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity) and the
  • visual tilt of the environment are different, visual tilt will influence observers’
  • perceived vertical = The tilt induced effect.
  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
  • (Witkin & Asch, 1948) - Tilt-induced effects are increased when observers are
  • also tilted.
slide30

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity) and the
  • visual tilt of the environment are different, visual tilt will influence observers’
  • perceived vertical = The tilt induced effect.
  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
  • (Witkin & Asch, 1948) - Tilt-induced effects are increased when observers are
  • also tilted.

Observers tilted congruently

slide31

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity) and the
  • visual tilt of the environment are different, visual tilt will influence observers’
  • perceived vertical = The tilt induced effect.
  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
  • (Witkin & Asch, 1948) - Tilt-induced effects are increased when observers are
  • also tilted.

Observers tilted congruently experience larger tilt-induced effects

>

slide32

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity) and the
  • visual tilt of the environment are different, visual tilt will influence observers’
  • perceived vertical = The tilt induced effect.
  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
  • (Witkin & Asch, 1948) - Tilt-induced effects are increased when observers are
  • also tilted.

Observers tilted congruently experience larger tilt-induced effects than incongruently tilted observers.

>

slide33

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity) and the
  • visual tilt of the environment are different, visual tilt will influence observers’
  • perceived vertical = The tilt induced effect.
  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
  • (Witkin & Asch, 1948) - Tilt-induced effects are increased when observers are
  • also tilted.

Observers tilted congruently experience larger tilt-induced effects than incongruently tilted observers.

>

(0.8o)

slide34

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity) and the
  • visual tilt of the environment are different, visual tilt will influence observers’
  • perceived vertical = The tilt induced effect.
  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
  • (Witkin & Asch, 1948) - Tilt-induced effects are increased when observers are
  • also tilted.

Q2. Are visual tilt-induced effects really greater when the observer is tilted

incongruently vs. congruently with the visual environment?

(0.8o is pretty weak…)

slide35

Introduction

  • (Asch & Witkin, 1948) - If true vertical (with respect to gravity) and the
  • visual tilt of the environment are different, visual tilt will influence observers’
  • perceived vertical = The tilt induced effect.
  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
  • (Witkin & Asch, 1948) - Tilt-induced effects are increased when observers are
  • also tilted.

Q3. Do observers actively maintaining an upright posture on a tilted surface

experience the same degree of visual tilt-induced effects as passively-

tilted observers?

slide37

Summary of research questions

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

slide38

Summary of research questions

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

Q2. Are visual tilt-induced effects really greater when the observer is tilted

incongruently vs. congruently with the visual environment?

slide39

Summary of research questions

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

Q2. Are visual tilt-induced effects really greater when the observer is tilted

incongruently vs. congruently with the visual environment?

Q3. Do observers actively maintaining an upright posture on a tilted surface

experience the same degree of visual tilt-induced effects as passively-

tilted observers?

slide42

Apparatus for visual tilt-induced effects

A Rod-Frame box

rolled 20o along the roll axis

slide43

Apparatus for visual tilt-induced effects

A Rod-Frame box

rolled 20o along the roll axis

produced standard visual-tilt induced effects.

slide44

Perceptual measure

The experimenter rolled the rod independently of the tilted box until the

subject indicated that the rod was “vertical with respect to gravity.”

slide45

Perceptual measure

The experimenter rolled the rod independently of the tilted box until the

subject indicated that the rod was “vertical with respect to gravity.”

The deviation from vertical of the observer’s

rod adjustment (angle of illusion) was measured

by a ruler on the backside of the rod with 0o

corresponding to true vertical position of the rod.

slide46

Perceptual measure

A 10o illusion in rod adjustment:

slide47

Perceptual measure

A 10o illusion in rod adjustment:

slide48

Perceptual measure

A 10o illusion in rod adjustment:

slide49

Active observers

  • Observers standing on a tilted platform actively maintained an upright
  • posture
slide50

Active observers

  • Observers standing on a tilted platform actively maintained an upright
  • posture while determining the vertical position of the rod.
slide51

Active observers

  • Observers standing on a tilted platform actively maintained an upright
  • posture while determining the vertical position of the rod.
  • The platform could be rotated about an axis on the floor to
  • pitch and roll the observer.
slide52

Active observers

  • Observers standing on a tilted platform actively maintained an upright
  • posture while determining the vertical position of the rod.
  • The platform could be rotated about an axis on the floor to
  • pitch and roll the observer.
  • To control for head tilt,
slide53

Active observers

  • Observers standing on a tilted platform actively maintained an upright
  • posture while determining the vertical position of the rod.
  • The platform could be rotated about an axis on the floor to
  • pitch and roll the observer.
  • To control for head tilt, observers were instructed to keep the
  • head
slide54

Active observers

  • Observers standing on a tilted platform actively maintained an upright
  • posture while determining the vertical position of the rod.
  • The platform could be rotated about an axis on the floor to
  • pitch and roll the observer.
  • To control for head tilt, observers were instructed to keep the
  • head aligned with the upper body.
slide55

Passive observers

  • Passively tilted observers made adjustments
slide56

Passive observers

  • Passively tilted observers made adjustments while sitting in a
  • chair attached to the tilted platform.
slide57

Passive observers

  • Passively tilted observers made adjustments while sitting in a
  • chair attached to the tilted platform.
  • The chair and platform could be rotated to pitch and roll the observer.
slide58

Passive observers

  • Passively tilted observers made adjustments while sitting in a
  • chair attached to the tilted platform.
  • The chair and platform could be rotated to pitch and roll the observer.
  • Head tilt was controlled using a head rest attached to the chair to keep
  • the head in line with the upper body.
slide59

Results n=14

Observer Pitch

slide60

Results n=14

Observer Pitch

  • There was a standard tilt-induced effect of ~5o in the direction of the
  • tilted box.
slide61

Results n=14

Observer Pitch

  • Rolling the observer congruently with the box slightly increased tilt-
  • induced effects.
slide62

Results n=14

Observer Pitch

  • Rolling the observer incongruently with the box decreased tilt-
  • induced effects.
slide63

Results

  • (Witkin & Asch, 1948) -

>

Observers tilted congruently experience larger tilt-induced effects than incongruently tilted observers.

(0.8o)

slide64

Results

  • (Witkin & Asch, 1948) -

>

Observers tilted congruently experience larger tilt-induced effects than incongruently tilted observers.

(0.8o)

Q2. Are visual tilt-induced effects really greater when the observer is tilted

incongruently vs. congruently with the visual environment? (0.8o is pretty weak…)

slide65

Results

  • (Witkin & Asch, 1948) -

>

Observers tilted congruently experience larger tilt-induced effects than incongruently tilted observers.

(0.8o)

Q2. Are visual tilt-induced effects really greater when the observer is tilted

incongruently vs. congruently with the visual environment? (0.8o is pretty weak…)

A2. NO!

slide66

Results

  • (Witkin & Asch, 1948) -

>

Observers tilted congruently experience larger tilt-induced effects than incongruently tilted observers.

(0.8o)

Q2. Are visual tilt-induced effects really greater when the observer is tilted

incongruently vs. congruently with the visual environment? (0.8o is pretty weak…)

A2. NO! Visual tilt-induced effects are slightly increased when the observer is

tilted congruently with the environment and effects are decreased when

the observer is tilted incongruently with the environment.

<

slide67

Results

  • (Witkin & Asch, 1948) -

>

Observers tilted congruently experience larger tilt-induced effects than incongruently tilted observers.

(0.8o)

Q2. Are visual tilt-induced effects really greater when the observer is tilted

incongruently vs. congruently with the visual environment? (0.8o is pretty weak…)

A2. NO! Visual tilt-induced effects are slightly increased when the observer is

tilted congruently with the environment and effects are decreased when

the observer is tilted incongruently with the environment.

<

(4o)

slide68

Results n=14

Observer Pitch

  • There was no difference between adjustments when observers were
  • pitched forward or backward. It only mattered that they were pitched.
slide69

Results n=14

Observer Pitch

  • There was no difference between adjustments when observers were
  • pitched forward or backward. It only mattered that they were pitched.
  • The data were collapsed to “No Pitch” and “Pitch.”
slide70

Results n=14

Observer Pitch

  • Pitching observers decreased the standard tilt-induced effect.
slide71

Results n=14

Observer Pitch

  • Pitching observers exaggerated the tilt-induced effects of
  • rolling observers.
slide72

Results

  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
slide73

Results

  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
  • Manipulating one dimension does not affect the influence of the other dimension.
slide74

Results

  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
  • Manipulating one dimension does not affect the influence of the other dimension.

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

slide75

Results

  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
  • Manipulating one dimension does not affect the influence of the other dimension.

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

A1. Pitch and roll of the observer interact to influence the magnitude of

visual tilt-induced effects.

slide76

Results

  • (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003) - Pitch and roll of the visual environment
  • contribute independently to visual tilt-induced effects.
  • Manipulating one dimension does not affect the influence of the other dimension.

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

A1. Pitch and roll of the observer interact to influence the magnitude of

visual tilt-induced effects.

Manipulating one dimension affects the influence of the other dimension.

slide77

Results n=14

Observer Pitch

  • Comparing the adjustments of active and passive observers….
slide78

Results n=7

Observer Pitch

  • Tilt-induced effects were exaggerated for passive observers.
slide79

Results n=7

Observer Pitch

  • Tilt-induced effects were greatly attenuated for active observers.
slide80

Results

Q3. Do observers actively maintaining an upright posture on a tilted surface

experience the same degree of visual tilt-induced effects as passively-

tilted observers?

slide81

Results

Q3. Do observers actively maintaining an upright posture on a tilted surface

experience the same degree of visual tilt-induced effects as passively-

tilted observers?

A3. No!

slide82

Results

Q3. Do observers actively maintaining an upright posture on a tilted surface

experience the same degree of visual tilt-induced effects as passively-

tilted observers?

A3. No! Observers actively maintaining an upright posture experience

enhanced tilt-induced effects and passively tilted observers experience

weakened tilt-induced effects.

slide84

Summary

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

slide85

Summary

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

A1. Pitch and roll of the observer interact to influence the magnitude of

visual tilt-induced effects.

slide86

Summary

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

A1. Pitch and roll of the observer interact to influence the magnitude of

visual tilt-induced effects.

Q2. Are visual tilt-induced effects really greater when the observer is tilted

incongruently vs. congruently with the visual environment?

slide87

Summary

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

A1. Pitch and roll of the observer interact to influence the magnitude of

visual tilt-induced effects.

Q2. Are visual tilt-induced effects really greater when the observer is tilted

incongruently vs. congruently with the visual environment?

A2. NO! Visual tilt-induced effects are slightly increased when the observer

is tilted congruently with the environment and effects are decreased

when the observer is tilted incongruently with the environment.

slide88

Summary

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

A1. Pitch and roll of the observer interact to influence the magnitude of

visual tilt-induced effects.

Q2. Are visual tilt-induced effects really greater when the observer is tilted

incongruently vs. congruently with the visual environment?

A2. NO! Visual tilt-induced effects are slightly increased when the observer

is tilted congruently with the environment and effects are decreased

when the observer is tilted incongruently with the environment.

Q3. Do observers actively maintaining an upright posture on a tilted surface

experience the same degree of visual tilt-induced effects as passively-

tilted observers?

slide89

Summary

Q1. Do pitch and roll of the observer independently/interactively influence

visual-tilt induced effects?

A1. Pitch and roll of the observer interact to influence the magnitude of

visual tilt-induced effects.

Q2. Are visual tilt-induced effects really greater when the observer is tilted

incongruently vs. congruently with the visual environment?

A2. NO! Visual tilt-induced effects are slightly increased when the observer

is tilted congruently with the environment and effects are decreased

when the observer is tilted incongruently with the environment.

Q3. Do observers actively maintaining an upright posture on a tilted surface

experience the same degree of visual tilt-induced effects as passively-

tilted observers?

A3. No! Observers actively maintaining an upright posture experience

enhanced tilt-induced effects and passively tilted observers experience

weakened tilt-induced effects.

slide91

Implications 1

Pitch and roll of the visual environment independently contribute to visual

tilt-induced effects. (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003).

slide92

Implications 1

Pitch and roll of the visual environment independently contribute to visual

tilt-induced effects. (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003).

Pitching and rolling the observer and not the visual environment does nothing

(Witkin & Asch, 1948).

slide93

Implications 1

Pitch and roll of the visual environment independently contribute to visual

tilt-induced effects. (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003).

Pitching and rolling the observer and not the visual environment does nothing

(Witkin & Asch, 1948).

Proprioceptive pitch and roll interact in contributing to visual tilt-induced effects

(current study).

slide94

Implications 1

Pitch and roll of the visual environment independently contribute to visual

tilt-induced effects. (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003).

Pitching and rolling the observer and not the visual environment does nothing

(Witkin & Asch, 1948).

Proprioceptive pitch and roll interact in contributing to visual tilt-induced effects

(current study).

People weight multiple sources of information differently

depending upon what you do to them.

slide95

Implications 1

Pitch and roll of the visual environment independently contribute to visual

tilt-induced effects. (Nelson & Prinzmetal, 2003).

Pitching and rolling the observer and not the visual environment does nothing

(Witkin & Asch, 1948).

Proprioceptive pitch and roll interact in contributing to visual tilt-induced effects

(current study).

People weight multiple sources of information differently

depending upon what you do to them.

Visual information about upright modulates the

contributions of proprioceptive cues to gravity.

slide96

Implications 2

Tipping people the opposite way as the frame produces the largest

tilt-induced effects (Asch & Witkin, 1948).

slide97

Implications 2

Tipping people the opposite way as the frame produces the largest

tilt-induced effects (Asch & Witkin, 1948).

Too small! Not significant!

slide98

Implications 2

Tipping people the opposite way as the frame produces the largest

tilt-induced effects (Asch & Witkin, 1948).

Too small! Not significant!

Tipping people the same way as the frame produces the largest tilt-induced effects

(current study).

slide99

Implications 2

Tipping people the opposite way as the frame produces the largest

tilt-induced effects (Asch & Witkin, 1948).

Too small! Not significant!

Tipping people the same way as the frame produces the largest tilt-induced effects

(current study).

When visual and proprioceptive input coincide, observers

rely heaviest on vision to determine upright.

slide100

Implications 2

Tipping people the opposite way as the frame produces the largest

tilt-induced effects (Asch & Witkin, 1948).

Too small! Not significant!

Tipping people the same way as the frame produces the largest tilt-induced effects

(current study).

When visual and proprioceptive input coincide, observers

rely heaviest on vision to determine upright.

When visual and proprioceptive information are

mismatched, observers try to compensate for being tilted

and rely less on vision to determine upright.

slide101

Implications 2

Tipping people the opposite way as the frame produces the largest

tilt-induced effects (Asch & Witkin, 1948).

Too small! Not significant!

Tipping people the same way as the frame produces the largest tilt-induced effects

(current study).

When visual and proprioceptive input coincide, observers

rely heaviest on vision to determine upright.

When visual and proprioceptive information are

mismatched, observers try to compensate for being tilted

and rely less on vision to determine upright.

The more similar the proprioceptive and visual

input,the greater the illusion.

slide102

Implications 3

The literature is all over the place regarding the tilt-induced effects for passive

and active observers.

slide103

Implications 3

The literature is all over the place regarding the tilt-induced effects for passive

and active observers.

Tilt-induced effects are attenuated for active observers

(current study).

slide104

Implications 3

The literature is all over the place regarding the tilt-induced effects for passive

and active observers.

Tilt-induced effects are attenuated for active observers

(current study).

Tilt-induced effects are exaggerated for passive

observers (current study).

slide105

Implications 3

The literature is all over the place regarding the tilt-induced effects for passive

and active observers.

Tilt-induced effects are attenuated for active observers

(current study).

Tilt-induced effects are exaggerated for passive

observers (current study).

The less informative the proprioceptive input,

(passive observers and incongruently tilted

observers), the greater the dependence on

visual input, the greater the tilt-induced effects.

slide107

Take home message:

If you go inside one of the Mystery Cabins,

slide108

Take home message:

If you go inside one of the Mystery Cabins,

Gold Hill, OR

slide109

Take home message:

If you go inside one of the Mystery Cabins,

Gold Hill, OR

Santa Cruz, CA

slide110

Take home message:

If you go inside one of the Mystery Cabins,

slide111

Take home message:

If you go inside one of the Mystery Cabins,

sit in a chair!!

slide112

Thanks to

Jim Enns

The Oregon Vortex (www.oregonvortex.com)

Bill Prinzmetal

Bruce Bridgeman

Lovely assistant Jess

Everyone who participated

Everyone who put up with a huge contraption in their space

Master carpenter, Ken Keltner

slide113

Questions

Observer Pitch

n=14