Projectile Point Typology on the Columbia Plateau Research Contexts for Analysis of Prehistoric Styles and Temporal Markers
Columbia Plateau Physiographic Region Columbia Plateau Province: Walla Walla Plateau Blue Mountain section Payette section Snake River Plain Harney section http://www2.nature.nps.gov/geology/usgsnps/ province/ColumbiaRelief.jpg
Construction of Typologies Rules for Inclusion
Selection of Diagnostic Artifact Types • For inclusion, artifact types must have distinctive spatial, temporal of cultural distributions. • Rules for Inclusion: (1) A defined type has a clearly proscribed range of variation defined quantitatively or qualitatively. (2) The named type has been recovered in definable archaeological contexts, and can be isolated in specific stratigraphic sequences. Lohse and Sammons 1994
Selection of Archaeological Sites • Rules for inclusion: (1) Sites must have been excavated in cultural stratigraphic levels and not in natural or arbitrary levels. (2) Provenience information must be available for all recovered artifacts that specifies cultural units as to strata, feature and association. (3) A detailed descriptive report, covering excavation methodology and analysis, must be published for the site or be in the process of publication, and excavation notes and photographs must be on file at a recognized repository.
Selection of Site Assemblages • Rules for inclusion: (1) An artifact distribution to qualify as a site activity assemblage must be defined in a discrete vertical and horizontal distribution associated with a recognizable cultural feature. (2) The cultural and natural stratigraphy must indicate that the assemblage represents a discrete prehistoric activity. The assemblage is not an analytical construct but a found context. (3) The assemblage indicates a discrete series of tasks or task related activities. The assemblage is not an amalgam of activities over a period of time reflecting different seasons of site use nor different uses in different years.
Types as Concept Maps … Schema Theory Mental templates Concept Maps Ideal or Core Types
Schema Theory • Stone projectile points are idealizations • Knappers created these points according to standard templates • These templates represent actions sets or scripts • Scripts represent collective norms or cultural schemata • These norms represent knapping traditions • And cultural or ethnic idealizations
Skill Application • Types can be defined statistically, perhaps envisioned as centroids or norms within larger distributions of related forms • Variation will be found within these defined types • Identification of ranges or production within collective norms • Or, variation in production of idealizations is due to differential knapping skills, material characteristics or other circumstance
Templates: Ideal Forms • Classification depends upon imposition of consistent, explicit rules for characterizing basic design • An important measure is characterization of outline • And, characterization of symmetry as assessment of strict design parameters • Cultural templates manipulate variables of shape, symmetry and surface reduction
Abstract Measures • Complex cultural forms, produced by artisans working with scripts within schemata, can be characterized as simple geometric shapes • Lines and nodes reduce formal complexity to something easily measured • Reduction of complexity allows elegant, explicit measures of outlines, proportions and ratios
Projectile Point Sequence: Morphological Groups • Seven Projectile Point Series are Defined for the Columbia Plateau: • 1. Lanceolate (Paleoindian) • 2. Lanceolate (Early and Middle Archaic) • 3. Shouldered Lanceolate (Late Paleoindian) • 4. Shouldered Triangular (Early and Middle Archaic) • 5. Corner-notched and Basal-notched Triangular (Early and Middle Archaic) • 6. Large Side-notched Triangular (Early-Middle Archaic) • 7. Small Side-notched Triangular (Late Archaic)
Paleoindian Period Fluted Lanceolate and Plano Series Projectile Point Types
Fluted Lanceolate Points: Clovis Description: large lanceolate projectile point with a deep concave flute removed from the basal margin. Type Site: Blackwater Draw (Sellards 1952) Temporal Range: 12-11,000 B.P. Phylogeny: Clovis series; wide range of forms held indicative of specific areas Cast of a Blackwater Draw Clovis http://www.ele.net/Carl/intro.htm
Clovis Found on the Columbia Plateau Richey-Roberts cache contains the largest sample of Clovis points and the only site with intact Clovis deposits (Mehringer 1989)
Plano Series: The Plains Perspective Clovis Folsom Agate Angostura Alberta Eden Scottsbluff Basin http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0200/frameset_reset.html?http://www.nebraskastudies.org/ 0200/stories/0201_0111.html
Plano Points on the Columbia Plateau • Plano Period projectile points replaced the earlier fluted Clovis and Folsom types and show a much wider range for forms and sizes • Characteristic forms: • Simple Lanceolate forms (Windust, Cascade) • Shouldered Lanceolate forms (Lind Coulee, Haskett, Windust)
Recognized Plano Types Found on the Columbia Plateau Haskett type, Butler 1964, 1967; Hell Gap type, Agogino 1961, 1985; Agate Basin, Irwin-Williams 1973; Lind Coulee type, Daugherty 1956 Haskett Agate Basin Hell Gap
Lind Coulee Description: large shouldered lanceolate form with elongate stem and sloping to squared shoulders Type Site: Lind Coulee (Daugherty 1956) Temporal Range: c.10000-9000 B.P. Phylogeny: Lind Coulee is a recognizable types within a general Late Paleoindian shouldered lanceolate series
Lind Coulee Variants • Daugherty (1956:246-247) defined three styles of chipped stone projectile points in the Lind Coulee Assemblage. • Stemmed points with tapered stems, rounded shoulders, and a convex base; stemmed points with sharp lateral shoulders; and stemmed points with parallel-sided stems. • Irwin and Moody (1978:257 believed these different styles represented variations of a basic Lind Coulee Point type that could be defined as " a well-made leafshaped point with weak to distinct shoulders and a stem with slightly converging sides and a convex base.” http://www.archaeology.wsu.edu/lind_coulee/site_interpretations.htm
Windust Series Recognized Windust series projectile points: left, Windust unstemmed; others, stemmed and stemmed, indented base points. Ames et al. 1998: Fig. 2.
Windust A Description: squat lanceolate projectile point with straight to contracting stem and straight base Type Site: Windust Caves (Rice 1965); Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1972) Temporal Range: c10000-9000 B.P. Phylogeny: Windust Series, Type A; refer to Types B and C
Windust B Description: squat lanceolate projectile point with broad, straight to contracting stem and concave to notched base Type Site: Windust Caves (Rice 1965); Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1972) Temporal Range: c.10000-9000 B.P. Phylogeny: Windust Series, Type B; refer to Types A and C
Windust C Description: squat lanceolate projectile point with deeply concave or notched base Type Site: Windust Caves (Rice 1965); Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1972) Temporal Range: c.10000-9000 B.P. Phylogeny: Windust Series, Type C; refer to Types A and B
Archaic Period Five Series: Lanceolate, Shouldered Lanceolate, Corner-removed Triangular, Corner-notched and Basal-notched Triangular
Cascade Series Cascade series projectile points. Ames et al. 1998: Fig. 2.
Cascade A Description: broad lanceolate projectile point, with a rounded to convex base Type Site: Indian Wells (Butler 1961) Temporal Range: c.8000-5000 B.P. Phylogeny: Cascade Series, Type A; refer to Types B and C
Cascade B Description: slender lanceolate projectile point with a concave base Type Site: Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1972) Temporal Range: c.8500-7500 B.P. Phylogeny: Cascade Series, Type B; refer to Types A and C
Cascade C Description: slender lanceolate projectile point, often serrated Type Site: Indian Wells (Butler 1961) Temporal Range: c.8000-5000 B.P. Phylogeny: Cascade Series, Type C; refer to Types A and B
Mahkin Shouldered • Description: shouldered lanceolate projectile point of variable size and stem treatment • Type Sites: Windust Caves (H. Rice 1965); Marmes Rockshelter (D. Rice 1969, 1970, 1972); 45-OK-11 (Lohse 1984) • Temporal Range: c. 8-2500 B.P. • Phylogeny: most likely a continuation of Late Plano shouldered lanceolate morphology
Cold Springs Side-notched Description: large side-notched projectile point with straight to concave base. Type Site: Cold Springs (Shiner 1961) Temporal Range: c.6000-4000 B.P. Phylogeny: Cold Springs Side-notched is part of a large, variable series of side-notched triangular points.
Plateau Side-notched Description: small side-notched projectile point with straight to concave base Type Site: Not identified. Temporal Range: c.1500-200 B.P. Phylogeny: Plateau Side-notched is part of a very large, highly variable series of small side-notched points marking the late prehistoric period.
Nespelem Bar • Description: slightly shouldered triangular projectile point with variable basal morphology • Type sites: 45-OK-11 (Lohse 1984), 45-OK-258 (Jaehnig 1985) • Temporal range: c. 5000-3000 B.P. • Phylogeny: this form is often subsumed under the Rabbit Island Stemmed Series
Rabbit Island Stemmed A • Description: a distinctive, thin triangular projectile point, often serrated, with square shoulders and well-defined straight to contracting stems • Type sites: Shalkop site (Swanson 1962), Sunset Creek site (Nelson 1969) • Temporal range: c. 4000-2000 B.P. • Phylogeny: temporal ranges overlap with the Nespelem Bar and Columbia Corner-notched A types
Rabbit Island Stemmed B • Description: small, thin triangular point with square shoulders, straight to incurvate lateral margins and sharply contracting stems • Type sites: Shalkop site (Swanson 1962), Sunset Creek site (C. Nelson 1969), Wanapum Dam (Greengo 1982) • Temporal range: c. 3000-1500 B.P. • Phylogeny: a smaller and more delicate version of the Rabbit Island Stemmed A type
Columbia Corner-notched A Description: large corner-notched triangular projectile point with straight to expanding stems Type Sites: Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1969, 1972); Granite Point Locality (Leonhardy 1970) Temporal Range: c.5000-2500 B.P. Phylogeny: Columbia C-n A is an early form in a series of corner points spanning the last 5000 years
Columbia Corner-notched B Description: small corner-notched triangular projectile points with straight to expanding stems Type Sites: Granite Point Locality (Leonhardy 1970); Sunset Creek (Nelson 1969) Temporal Range: c.2000-150 B.P. Phylogeny: smaller version of Columbia C-n A and later in the prehistoric sequence
Quilomene Bar Corner-notched Description: large corner-notched triangular projectile points with deep, broad corner notches Type Sites: Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1969, 1972); Sunset Creek Site (Nelson 1969) Temporal Range: c.3000-2000 B.P. Phylogeny: part of the general corner-notched series; larger more massive points than Columbia C-n A
Wallula Rectangular Stemmed Description: small corner-notched triangular projectile points with straight, elongate stems Type Sites: Sunset Creek (Nelson 1969); Wanapum Dam (Greengo 1982) Temporal Range: c.2000-1500 B.P. Phylogeny: small, late form in the general corner-notched series; long straight stem distinguishes this from Columbia Corner-notched B
Quilomene Bar Basal-notched A Description: large basal-notched projectile points with long square barbs Type Sites: Sunset Creek (Nelson 1969); Wanapum Dam (Greengo 1982) Temporal Range: c.2000-1500 B.P. Phylogeny: these are the earliest forms in the basal-notched series marking the late prehistoric period; compare to Columbia Stemmed A, B and C
Quilomene Bar Basal-notched B Description: large basal-notched triangular projectile point with tapering barbs and expanding stem Type Sites: Sunset Creek (Nelson 1969); Wanapum Dam (Greengo 1982) Temporal Range: c.2500-1500 B.P. Phylogeny: form is a more delicate version of Quilomene Bar B-n A and coeval in age.
Columbia Stemmed A Description: delicate, long basal-notched triangular projectile points with blunt or square barbs Type Sites: Sunset Creek (Nelson 1969); Wanapum Dam (Greengo 1982) Temporal Range: c.2000-150 B.P. Phylogeny: this form is a part of the distinctive Columbia Stemmed Series; refer to Columbia Stemmed B and C