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Projectile Point Typology on the Columbia Plateau. Research Contexts for Analysis of Prehistoric Styles and Temporal Markers. Columbia Plateau Physiographic Region. Columbia Plateau Province: Walla Walla Plateau Blue Mountain section Payette section Snake River Plain

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projectile point typology on the columbia plateau

Projectile Point Typology on the Columbia Plateau

Research Contexts for Analysis of Prehistoric Styles and Temporal Markers

columbia plateau physiographic region
Columbia Plateau Physiographic Region

Columbia Plateau Province:

Walla Walla Plateau

Blue Mountain section

Payette section

Snake River Plain

Harney section

http://www2.nature.nps.gov/geology/usgsnps/

province/ColumbiaRelief.jpg

construction of typologies

Construction of Typologies

Rules for Inclusion

selection of diagnostic artifact types
Selection of Diagnostic Artifact Types
  • For inclusion, artifact types must have distinctive spatial, temporal of cultural distributions.
  • Rules for Inclusion:

(1) A defined type has a clearly proscribed range of variation defined quantitatively or qualitatively.

(2) The named type has been recovered in definable archaeological contexts, and can be isolated in specific stratigraphic sequences.

Lohse and Sammons 1994

selection of archaeological sites
Selection of Archaeological Sites
  • Rules for inclusion:

(1) Sites must have been excavated in cultural stratigraphic levels and not in natural or arbitrary levels.

(2) Provenience information must be available for all recovered artifacts that specifies cultural units as to strata, feature and association.

(3) A detailed descriptive report, covering excavation methodology and analysis, must be published for the site or be in the process of publication, and excavation notes and photographs must be on file at a recognized repository.

selection of site assemblages
Selection of Site Assemblages
  • Rules for inclusion:

(1) An artifact distribution to qualify as a site activity assemblage must be defined in a discrete vertical and horizontal distribution associated with a recognizable cultural feature.

(2) The cultural and natural stratigraphy must indicate that the assemblage represents a discrete prehistoric activity. The assemblage is not an analytical construct but a found context.

(3) The assemblage indicates a discrete series of tasks or task related activities. The assemblage is not an amalgam of activities over a period of time reflecting different seasons of site use nor different uses in different years.

types as concept maps schema theory

Types as Concept Maps … Schema Theory

Mental templates

Concept Maps

Ideal or Core Types

schema theory
Schema Theory
  • Stone projectile points are idealizations
  • Knappers created these points according to standard templates
  • These templates represent actions sets or scripts
  • Scripts represent collective norms or cultural schemata
    • These norms represent knapping traditions
    • And cultural or ethnic idealizations
skill application
Skill Application
  • Types can be defined statistically, perhaps envisioned as centroids or norms within larger distributions of related forms
  • Variation will be found within these defined types
    • Identification of ranges or production within collective norms
    • Or, variation in production of idealizations is due to differential knapping skills, material characteristics or other circumstance
templates ideal forms
Templates: Ideal Forms
  • Classification depends upon imposition of consistent, explicit rules for characterizing basic design
  • An important measure is characterization of outline
  • And, characterization of symmetry as assessment of strict design parameters
    • Cultural templates manipulate variables of shape, symmetry and surface reduction
abstract measures
Abstract Measures
  • Complex cultural forms, produced by artisans working with scripts within schemata, can be characterized as simple geometric shapes
    • Lines and nodes reduce formal complexity to something easily measured
    • Reduction of complexity allows elegant, explicit measures of outlines, proportions and ratios
projectile point sequence morphological groups
Projectile Point Sequence: Morphological Groups
  • Seven Projectile Point Series are Defined for the Columbia Plateau:
    • 1. Lanceolate (Paleoindian)
    • 2. Lanceolate (Early and Middle Archaic)
    • 3. Shouldered Lanceolate (Late Paleoindian)
    • 4. Shouldered Triangular (Early and Middle Archaic)
    • 5. Corner-notched and Basal-notched Triangular (Early and Middle Archaic)
    • 6. Large Side-notched Triangular (Early-Middle Archaic)
    • 7. Small Side-notched Triangular (Late Archaic)
paleoindian period

Paleoindian Period

Fluted Lanceolate and Plano Series Projectile Point Types

fluted lanceolate points clovis
Fluted Lanceolate Points: Clovis

Description: large lanceolate projectile point with a deep concave flute removed from the basal margin.

Type Site: Blackwater Draw (Sellards 1952)

Temporal Range: 12-11,000 B.P.

Phylogeny: Clovis series; wide range of forms held indicative of specific areas

Cast of a Blackwater Draw Clovis

http://www.ele.net/Carl/intro.htm

clovis found on the columbia plateau
Clovis Found on the Columbia Plateau

Richey-Roberts cache contains the largest sample of Clovis points and the only site with intact Clovis deposits (Mehringer 1989)

plano series the plains perspective
Plano Series: The Plains Perspective

Clovis Folsom Agate Angostura Alberta Eden Scottsbluff

Basin

http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0200/frameset_reset.html?http://www.nebraskastudies.org/

0200/stories/0201_0111.html

plano points on the columbia plateau
Plano Points on the Columbia Plateau
  • Plano Period projectile points replaced the earlier fluted Clovis and Folsom types and show a much wider range for forms and sizes
  • Characteristic forms:
    • Simple Lanceolate forms (Windust, Cascade)
    • Shouldered Lanceolate forms (Lind Coulee, Haskett, Windust)
recognized plano types found on the columbia plateau
Recognized Plano Types Found on the Columbia Plateau

Haskett type, Butler 1964, 1967; Hell Gap type, Agogino 1961, 1985; Agate Basin, Irwin-Williams 1973; Lind Coulee type, Daugherty 1956

Haskett

Agate Basin

Hell Gap

lind coulee
Lind Coulee

Description: large shouldered lanceolate form with elongate stem and sloping to squared shoulders

Type Site: Lind Coulee (Daugherty 1956)

Temporal Range: c.10000-9000 B.P.

Phylogeny: Lind Coulee is a recognizable types within a general Late Paleoindian shouldered lanceolate series

lind coulee variants
Lind Coulee Variants
  • Daugherty (1956:246-247) defined three styles of chipped stone projectile points in the Lind Coulee Assemblage. 
  • Stemmed points with tapered stems, rounded shoulders, and a convex base; stemmed points with sharp lateral shoulders; and stemmed points with parallel-sided stems.
  • Irwin and Moody (1978:257 believed these different styles represented variations of a basic Lind Coulee Point type that could be defined as " a well-made leafshaped point with weak to distinct shoulders and a stem with slightly converging sides and a convex base.”

http://www.archaeology.wsu.edu/lind_coulee/site_interpretations.htm

windust series
Windust Series

Recognized Windust series projectile points: left, Windust unstemmed;

others, stemmed and stemmed, indented base points.

Ames et al. 1998: Fig. 2.

windust a
Windust A

Description: squat lanceolate projectile point with straight to contracting stem and straight base

Type Site: Windust Caves (Rice 1965); Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1972)

Temporal Range: c10000-9000 B.P.

Phylogeny: Windust Series, Type A; refer to Types B and C

windust b
Windust B

Description: squat lanceolate projectile point with broad, straight to contracting stem and concave to notched base

Type Site: Windust Caves (Rice 1965); Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1972)

Temporal Range: c.10000-9000 B.P.

Phylogeny: Windust Series, Type B; refer to Types A and C

windust c
Windust C

Description: squat lanceolate projectile point with deeply concave or notched base

Type Site: Windust Caves (Rice 1965); Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1972)

Temporal Range: c.10000-9000 B.P.

Phylogeny: Windust Series, Type C; refer to Types A and B

archaic period

Archaic Period

Five Series: Lanceolate, Shouldered Lanceolate, Corner-removed Triangular, Corner-notched and Basal-notched Triangular

cascade series
Cascade Series

Cascade series projectile points.

Ames et al. 1998: Fig. 2.

cascade a
Cascade A

Description: broad lanceolate projectile point, with a rounded to convex base

Type Site: Indian Wells (Butler 1961)

Temporal Range: c.8000-5000 B.P.

Phylogeny: Cascade Series, Type A; refer to Types B and C

cascade b
Cascade B

Description: slender lanceolate projectile point with a concave base

Type Site: Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1972)

Temporal Range: c.8500-7500 B.P.

Phylogeny: Cascade Series, Type B; refer to Types A and C

cascade c
Cascade C

Description: slender lanceolate projectile point, often serrated

Type Site: Indian Wells (Butler 1961)

Temporal Range: c.8000-5000 B.P.

Phylogeny: Cascade Series, Type C; refer to Types A and B

mahkin shouldered
Mahkin Shouldered
  • Description: shouldered lanceolate projectile point of variable size and stem treatment
  • Type Sites: Windust Caves (H. Rice 1965); Marmes Rockshelter (D. Rice 1969, 1970, 1972); 45-OK-11 (Lohse 1984)
  • Temporal Range: c. 8-2500 B.P.
  • Phylogeny: most likely a continuation of Late Plano shouldered lanceolate morphology
cold springs side notched
Cold Springs Side-notched

Description: large side-notched projectile point with straight to concave base.

Type Site: Cold Springs (Shiner 1961)

Temporal Range: c.6000-4000 B.P.

Phylogeny: Cold Springs Side-notched is part of a large, variable series of side-notched triangular points.

plateau side notched
Plateau Side-notched

Description: small side-notched projectile point with straight to concave base

Type Site: Not identified.

Temporal Range: c.1500-200 B.P.

Phylogeny: Plateau Side-notched is part of a very large, highly variable series of small side-notched points marking the late prehistoric period.

nespelem bar
Nespelem Bar
  • Description: slightly shouldered triangular projectile point with variable basal morphology
  • Type sites: 45-OK-11 (Lohse 1984), 45-OK-258 (Jaehnig 1985)
  • Temporal range: c. 5000-3000 B.P.
  • Phylogeny: this form is often subsumed under the Rabbit Island Stemmed Series
rabbit island stemmed a
Rabbit Island Stemmed A
  • Description: a distinctive, thin triangular projectile point, often serrated, with square shoulders and well-defined straight to contracting stems
  • Type sites: Shalkop site (Swanson 1962), Sunset Creek site (Nelson 1969)
  • Temporal range: c. 4000-2000 B.P.
  • Phylogeny: temporal ranges overlap with the Nespelem Bar and Columbia Corner-notched A types
rabbit island stemmed b
Rabbit Island Stemmed B
  • Description: small, thin triangular point with square shoulders, straight to incurvate lateral margins and sharply contracting stems
  • Type sites: Shalkop site (Swanson 1962), Sunset Creek site (C. Nelson 1969), Wanapum Dam (Greengo 1982)
  • Temporal range: c. 3000-1500 B.P.
  • Phylogeny: a smaller and more delicate version of the Rabbit Island Stemmed A type
columbia corner notched a
Columbia Corner-notched A

Description: large corner-notched triangular projectile point with straight to expanding stems

Type Sites: Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1969, 1972); Granite Point Locality (Leonhardy 1970)

Temporal Range: c.5000-2500 B.P.

Phylogeny: Columbia C-n A is an early form in a series of corner points spanning the last 5000 years

columbia corner notched b
Columbia Corner-notched B

Description: small corner-notched triangular projectile points with straight to expanding stems

Type Sites: Granite Point Locality (Leonhardy 1970); Sunset Creek (Nelson 1969)

Temporal Range: c.2000-150 B.P.

Phylogeny: smaller version of Columbia C-n A and later in the prehistoric sequence

quilomene bar corner notched
Quilomene Bar Corner-notched

Description: large corner-notched triangular projectile points with deep, broad corner notches

Type Sites: Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1969, 1972); Sunset Creek Site (Nelson 1969)

Temporal Range: c.3000-2000 B.P.

Phylogeny: part of the general corner-notched series; larger more massive points than Columbia C-n A

wallula rectangular stemmed
Wallula Rectangular Stemmed

Description: small corner-notched triangular projectile points with straight, elongate stems

Type Sites: Sunset Creek (Nelson 1969); Wanapum Dam (Greengo 1982)

Temporal Range: c.2000-1500 B.P.

Phylogeny: small, late form in the general corner-notched series; long straight stem distinguishes this from Columbia Corner-notched B

quilomene bar basal notched a
Quilomene Bar Basal-notched A

Description: large basal-notched projectile points with long square barbs

Type Sites: Sunset Creek (Nelson 1969); Wanapum Dam (Greengo 1982)

Temporal Range: c.2000-1500 B.P.

Phylogeny: these are the earliest forms in the basal-notched series marking the late prehistoric period; compare to Columbia Stemmed A, B and C

quilomene bar basal notched b
Quilomene Bar Basal-notched B

Description: large basal-notched triangular projectile point with tapering barbs and expanding stem

Type Sites: Sunset Creek (Nelson 1969); Wanapum Dam (Greengo 1982)

Temporal Range: c.2500-1500 B.P.

Phylogeny: form is a more delicate version of Quilomene Bar B-n A and coeval in age.

columbia stemmed a
Columbia Stemmed A

Description: delicate, long basal-notched triangular projectile points with blunt or square barbs

Type Sites: Sunset Creek (Nelson 1969); Wanapum Dam (Greengo 1982)

Temporal Range: c.2000-150 B.P.

Phylogeny: this form is a part of the distinctive Columbia Stemmed Series; refer to Columbia Stemmed B and C

columbia stemmed b
Columbia Stemmed B

Description: small, delicate basal-notched projectile points with sharp barbs and expanding stems

Type Sites: Sunset Creek (Nelson 1969); Wanapum Dam (Greengo 1982)

Temporal Range: c.2000-150 B.P.

Phylogeny: this form is part of the distinctive Columbia Stemmed Series; refer to Columbia Stemmed A and C

columbia stemmed c
Columbia Stemmed C

Description: small, squat, delicate basal-notched triangular projectile points with open basal notches laterally expanding barbs

Type Sites: Sunset Creek (Nelson 1969); Wanapum Dam (Greengo 1982)

Temporal Range: c.1500-150 B.P.

Phylogeny: this form is part of the Columbia Stemmed series; refer to Columbia Stemmed A and B

conclusions

Conclusions

Chronological Sequence of Recognized Projectile Point Styles … Core Forms … Horizon and Phase Markers

summary chart of changing projectile point styles
Summary Chart of Changing Projectile Point Styles

http://www.cr.nps.gov/aad/kennewick/ames_fig_26.htm

columbia plateau templates core forms
Shared Intermountain West forms:

Fluted forms: Clovis and Folsom

Plano forms: variable shouldered and unshouldered lanceolates

Medium-sized triangular forms: shouldered, side-, corner- and basal-notched

Smaller triangular forms: side-notched, corner- and basal-notched

Core Types, Columbia Plateau:

Plano series (Haskett and Lind Coulee)

Windust series

Cascade series

Rabbit Island Stemmed series

Columbia Stemmed series

possible distinctions: enhance measurement systems to capture types within larger, less diagnostic groupings

Columbia Plateau Templates: Core Forms