typology n.
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  1. Typology Morphologicaltypology

  2. Introduction • See «thebigpicture» • How doeswordformationworkoverall in specificlanguages? • How can themorphologicalsystems of particularlanguagesvaryfromoneanother? • (thesubject of linguistictypology)

  3. We will begin by describing the morphological systemsof five very different languages, looking at the kinds oflexeme formation and inflection that they display. • Then we will discuss both traditional ways of classifyingthe morphology of languages and more contemporarywaysof doingso. • Finally, we will look at how both the family a languagebelongs to and the geographic area in which it is spokencan influence its typological classification.

  4. Universalsandparticulars: a bit of linguistichistory • Do weknowanythingaboutmorphologicaluniversals? • There is a range of wordformationstrategiesthatappear in thelanguages of theworld. • Whatarepossibleforms of reduplicationorinfixingandwhat is impossible?

  5. Thegenius of languages: what’s in yourtoolkit? • Thereareuniquewaysinwhichthemorphology of languages can packagedifferentconcepts in differentforms. • Wewilllook at fiveverydifferentlanguages-Turkish, Mandarin Chinese, Samoan, Latin, and Nishnaabemwin -- to tryto see something of this unique combination of morphological processesthat constitutes at least one part of the genius of each language. • Allof these languages use morphology in one way or another, but each makesdifferent choices from the universal toolbag of rule types.

  6. Nishnaabemwin Turkish Latin mandarin Samoan

  7. Turkish • Turkish has a phonological rule called ‘vowel harmony’ • Although the predominant way of forming words in Turkish is throughsuffixation, it also has a process of compounding • Turkish uses suffixation for both derivation and inflection. • Turkish verbs are inflected for person and number, and can appear in anumber of different tenses, including present, past, future, and conditional. • All of these inflections are suffixes;verb forms can be quite long and complex. • noprocesses of prefixation on word-formation • Itmarkscase (Ev, evi, evin, eve, evde, evden)

  8. Turkish • Turkish is a language thatdelightsin suffixation

  9. Turkish has a process of compounding, it alsomarkscase

  10. Mandarin chinese (Sino-Tibetan) • noprocessesof prefixation • tinyhandful of suffixes • Mandarin has not only compoundnounsandcompoundadjectives, also all sorts of compoundverbs • Mandarin doeshavea system of noun classifiers that are used when counting or otherwise quantifyingnouns

  11. Mandarin chinese (Sino-Tibetan)N-xue>NPersonal N-jia>NN-hua>V

  12. Mandarin is poor in affixationandreduplication but rich in compounding

  13. Mandarin have a system of nounclassifiersthatareusedwhencountingorotherwisequantifyingnouns

  14. Samoan (Austronesian) • prefixation, suffixation, andcircumfixation, both partial and full reduplication, and also to some extentcompounding. • relations like case, tense, aspect, and mood areexpressed by independent particles, rather than by prefixes, suffixes, orreduplication, in thislanguage

  15. Samoan (Austronesian)

  16. suffixation

  17. reduplication

  18. compounding

  19. Latin (Indo-European) • Heavilyinflectedlanguage, almostentirelysuffixal • often several meanings are combined into a single inflectional morpheme in Latin • Latin nouns are inflected for case, number, and gender, and adjectivesare inflected to agree with them • Verbs have a number of different stems which form the basis of inflectionalparadigms that show aspect (imperfect vs. perfect) and voice (activevs. passive), as well as person and number • different person and number affixes are used in the past than in othertenses • Latin has both derivational suffixes and prefixes

  20. Nishnaabemwin (Algonquian) • heavy use of affixation, especially suffixation, and has an extremely richsystemof inflection • there are prefixes and suffixes that indicate possession of a noun • Verb inflection is even more complex than noun inflection • variousboundmorphemesare joined together to form words. Eg. Intransitiveverbsfrequently consist of two or three pieces.The piecesare • ‘initial’, expressessomething that modifies the verbal concept (such as adjectives, adverbs, orprepositions), • ‘medial’ expresses nominal concept, • ‘final’ expressesvariousinflectionalelements. • Nouns can be made up of several bound morphemes as well

  21. Nishnaabemwin (Algonquian)

  22. summary • Each language has a different combinationof word formation processes that gives the language its unique character • Weshould always be on the lookout for the commonalities or universals thatmark all these languages as human languages.