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Introduction • See «thebigpicture» • How doeswordformationworkoverall in specificlanguages? • How can themorphologicalsystems of particularlanguagesvaryfromoneanother? • (thesubject of linguistictypology)
We will begin by describing the morphological systemsof five very different languages, looking at the kinds oflexeme formation and inflection that they display. • Then we will discuss both traditional ways of classifyingthe morphology of languages and more contemporarywaysof doingso. • Finally, we will look at how both the family a languagebelongs to and the geographic area in which it is spokencan influence its typological classification.
Universalsandparticulars: a bit of linguistichistory • Do weknowanythingaboutmorphologicaluniversals? • There is a range of wordformationstrategiesthatappear in thelanguages of theworld. • Whatarepossibleforms of reduplicationorinfixingandwhat is impossible?
Thegenius of languages: what’s in yourtoolkit? • Thereareuniquewaysinwhichthemorphology of languages can packagedifferentconcepts in differentforms. • Wewilllook at fiveverydifferentlanguages-Turkish, Mandarin Chinese, Samoan, Latin, and Nishnaabemwin -- to tryto see something of this unique combination of morphological processesthat constitutes at least one part of the genius of each language. • Allof these languages use morphology in one way or another, but each makesdifferent choices from the universal toolbag of rule types.
Nishnaabemwin Turkish Latin mandarin Samoan
Turkish • Turkish has a phonological rule called ‘vowel harmony’ • Although the predominant way of forming words in Turkish is throughsuffixation, it also has a process of compounding • Turkish uses suffixation for both derivation and inflection. • Turkish verbs are inflected for person and number, and can appear in anumber of different tenses, including present, past, future, and conditional. • All of these inflections are suffixes;verb forms can be quite long and complex. • noprocesses of prefixation on word-formation • Itmarkscase (Ev, evi, evin, eve, evde, evden)
Turkish • Turkish is a language thatdelightsin suffixation
Mandarin chinese (Sino-Tibetan) • noprocessesof prefixation • tinyhandful of suffixes • Mandarin has not only compoundnounsandcompoundadjectives, also all sorts of compoundverbs • Mandarin doeshavea system of noun classifiers that are used when counting or otherwise quantifyingnouns
Mandarin chinese (Sino-Tibetan)N-xue>NPersonal N-jia>NN-hua>V
Mandarin have a system of nounclassifiersthatareusedwhencountingorotherwisequantifyingnouns
Samoan (Austronesian) • prefixation, suffixation, andcircumfixation, both partial and full reduplication, and also to some extentcompounding. • relations like case, tense, aspect, and mood areexpressed by independent particles, rather than by prefixes, suffixes, orreduplication, in thislanguage
Latin (Indo-European) • Heavilyinflectedlanguage, almostentirelysuffixal • often several meanings are combined into a single inflectional morpheme in Latin • Latin nouns are inflected for case, number, and gender, and adjectivesare inflected to agree with them • Verbs have a number of different stems which form the basis of inflectionalparadigms that show aspect (imperfect vs. perfect) and voice (activevs. passive), as well as person and number • different person and number affixes are used in the past than in othertenses • Latin has both derivational suffixes and prefixes
Nishnaabemwin (Algonquian) • heavy use of affixation, especially suffixation, and has an extremely richsystemof inflection • there are prefixes and suffixes that indicate possession of a noun • Verb inflection is even more complex than noun inflection • variousboundmorphemesare joined together to form words. Eg. Intransitiveverbsfrequently consist of two or three pieces.The piecesare • ‘initial’, expressessomething that modifies the verbal concept (such as adjectives, adverbs, orprepositions), • ‘medial’ expresses nominal concept, • ‘final’ expressesvariousinflectionalelements. • Nouns can be made up of several bound morphemes as well
summary • Each language has a different combinationof word formation processes that gives the language its unique character • Weshould always be on the lookout for the commonalities or universals thatmark all these languages as human languages.