phylogeny of the order corallimorpharia cnidaria hexacorallia n.
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Phylogeny of the order Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia). Harim Cha Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Natural History Museum & Biodiversity Research Center The University of Kansas harim@ku.edu. Corallimorpharia. One of six orders of Hexacorallia

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phylogeny of the order corallimorpharia cnidaria hexacorallia

Phylogeny of the order Corallimorpharia(Cnidaria: Hexacorallia)

Harim Cha

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Natural History Museum & Biodiversity Research Center

The University of Kansas

harim@ku.edu

slide2

Corallimorpharia

  • One of six orders of Hexacorallia
  • Coral-like sea anemones
  • Solitary or clonal polyps without skeleton
  • Current Classification

four families, 12 genera, and 50 species

  • Widely distributed

from tropical to polar areas and from shallow to deep water

Adorian Ardelean

George Miller

Vincent B. Hargreaves

corallimorpharia
Cylindrical body (CO I)

Family Sideractiidae

Family Corallimorphidae

Plate-like body (CO II)

Family Ricordeidae

Family Discosomatidae

Corallimorpharia
  • Questions about relationships within the order

Vincent B. Hargreaves

Vincent B. Hargreaves

slide4
Questions about relationship between Corallimorpharia and orders Actiniaria (sea anemones) and Scleractinia (stony corals)

Corallimorpharia

Hypothesis 1

Hypothesis 2

SC

CO

AC

SC

CO

AC

Hypothesis 3

Hypothesis 4

SC

CO

AC

SC

CO

CO

AC

slide5

Phylogenetic hypothesis based on molecular data

a. Fautin & Lowenstein (1994): radioimmunoassay

b. Chen et al. (1995): 28S rRNA

c. France et al. (1996): 16S rRNA

d. Daly et al. (2003): Morphology, 16S, 18S, 28S

e. Medina et al. (2006): mtDNA

slide6

Phylogenetic analysis using morphological characters

  • Major characters used for analysis:
    • Calcareous exoskeleton
    • Polyp shape / size
    • Tentacle shape / number / arrangement
    • Nature of mesenteries and mesenterial arrangement
    • Muscle development
    • Nematocyst composition
    • Life style – solitary or clonal
    • Habitat
    • Zooxanthellae
  • Methods:
    • 32 morphological characters
    • 12 genera of Corallimorpharia, 6 genera of Scleractinia, and 11 genera of Actiniaria
    • Outgroup: genus Cerianthus
    • Maximum parsimony criterion, 1000 bootstrap replicates
slide7

CO I

Corallimorpharia

(CO)

CO II

CO I

Scleractinia

(SC)

Actiniaria (AC)

Ceriantharia (CE)

  • Maximum Parsimony analysis
  • (CI = 0.58, RI = 0.69)
  • Strict consensus tree of 12 equally parsimonious trees
  • Number of parsimony informative characters = 30
slide8

Phylogenetic analysis using molecular characters

  • Genes sequenced:16S mtDNA (1233 bp), 28S rDNA (345 bp), 18S rDNA (1836 bp)
  • Taxon sampling:Corallimorpharia - more than one genus of each family except family Sideractidae - collected from Oman and Caribbean - borrowed from the Field MuseumScleractinia - Robust and Complex groups Actiniaria - at least one taxon of each tribe
  • Outgroup: Genus Cerianthus
  • MacClade 4.0 and PAUP 3.3.1
  • Maximum likelihoodMaximum parsimony – 2000 bootstrap replicates
results
Results

Maximum Likelihood

16S mtDNA

Robust

Scleractinia

(RS)

Maximum Parsimony analysis

  • Strict consensus of 9 equally parsimonious trees
  • Number of parsimony-informative characters: 498

Complex

Scleractinia

(CS)

Ceriantharia (CE)

Robust

Scleractinia (RS)

Corallimorpharia

(CO)

CO II

Corallimorpharia

(CO)

CO I

Complex

Scleractinia (CS)

Actiniaria

(AC)

Actiniaria (AC)

Ceriantharia (CE)

slide10

CO II

CO

AC

CO I

CO II

CO

RS

CO I

Scleractinia

CS

CE

AC

CE

28S rDNA maximum likelihood analysis

18S rDNA maximum likelihood analysis

summary of results
Summary of results
  • Phylogeny based on morphological characters1) Plate-like corallimorpharians are more closely related to deep-sea cylindrical corallimorpharians (genera Corallimorphus, Sideractis, Nectactis, and Sphincteractis) than to shallow-water ones.2) Corallimorpharia is a monophyletic group3)Corallimorpharia is a sister taxon of Scleractinia
  • Each gene gives a different signal on phylogenetic relationships of Corallimorpharia1) 16S mtDNA: Corallimorpharia is monophyletic and a sister taxon of the Complex group of Scleractinia 2) 28S rDNA: Corallimorpharia is monophyletic and a sister taxon of Scleractinia3) 18S rDNA: Corallimorpharia is within Scleractinia
further study
Further study
  • Better molecular markers are required to resolve higher level phylogeny of Hexacorallia
  • Extensive morphological data including polyp anatomy of scleractinians may help to clarify the position of corallimorpharians
  • Data from deep-sea corallimorpharians (family Sideractidae) will complete sampling of corallimorpharians and may be able to provide new insights on corallimorpharian phylogeny
acknowledgment s
Acknowledgments
  • Dr. Daphne Fautin and all lab people
  • Dr. Adorian Ardelean (WHOI)
  • Dr. Paulyn Cartwright (KU)
  • Dr. Rachel Collin (STRI)
  • Dr. Meg Daly (OSU)
  • Mr. Matthew Kost (KU)
  • Ms. Abby Reft
  • Dr. Sandra Romano (UVI)
  • NSF grant 9978106 in the program Partnerships to Enhance Expertise in Taxonomy (PEET) to Dr. Daphne Fautin
  • KU Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center
  • Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, KU