Microbiology
Download
1 / 26

MICROBIOLOGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 179 Views
  • Updated On :

MICROBIOLOGY. Introduction & Classification. Topics. Classification Methods of Microbiology Nutrition & Growth Microbial Structure Metabolism Host parasite relationships Control of Growth. Types of Microorganisms. Bacteria Gram positive & gram negative Viruses RNA & DNA Fungi

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'MICROBIOLOGY' - benjamin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Microbiology l.jpg

MICROBIOLOGY

Introduction & Classification


Topics l.jpg
Topics

  • Classification

  • Methods of Microbiology

  • Nutrition & Growth

  • Microbial Structure

  • Metabolism

  • Host parasite relationships

  • Control of Growth


Types of microorganisms l.jpg
Types of Microorganisms

  • Bacteria

    • Gram positive & gram negative

  • Viruses

    • RNA & DNA

  • Fungi

    • Yeasts & molds

  • Protozoa


History l.jpg
History

  • Robert Hooke

    • Described units in cork as cells

      Anton van Leeuwenhoek-1667

    • Made lenses or simple microscopes


Spontaneous generation l.jpg
Spontaneous Generation

  • Abiogenesis-living matter arising from nonliving matter

  • Redi –maggots & meat

  • Pasteur et al disproved abiogenesis


Pasteur l.jpg
Pasteur

  • Fermentation

    • Yeast ferment grape juice –alcohol

    • Bacteria ferment grape juice-acids

  • Pasteurization


Germ theory of disease l.jpg
Germ Theory of Disease

  • Koch

    • Koch’s postulates

    • Developed pure culture techniques

    • Discovered TB agent


Immunology chemotherapy l.jpg
Immunology/Chemotherapy

  • Jenner and smallpox vaccine

    • Used cowpox virus


Antiseptics l.jpg
Antiseptics

  • Semmelweis

  • Lister


Fleming l.jpg
Fleming

  • Discovered penicillin


Taxonomy l.jpg
Taxonomy

  • System of cataloging organisms

    • Identification: characterization of organisms

    • Classification: arrangement of organisms into similar groups

    • Nomenclature: assign names


Binominal nomenclature l.jpg
Binominal Nomenclature

  • Genus-capitalized ; collection of species

  • Microbes – species can be subdivided into strains

  • Strains have small genetic differences


Rules l.jpg
Rules

  • Both genus & species underlined or italicized

  • Strain-subdivision of species

    • ID by name, number or letter

    • Example- Escherichia coli- E. coli K12


Classification l.jpg
Classification

  • Wittaker-5 kingdoms

    • Plants

    • Animals

    • Fungi

    • Protista

    • Monera or Prokaryote


Domains l.jpg
Domains

  • Carl Woese-1980s

  • Based upon modern techniques

    • Sequence of rRNA in ribosomes

  • Three cell types based upon ribosomes


Three domains l.jpg
Three Domains

  • Domains above kingdom level

  • Bacteria or Eubacteriae

    • Prokaryotes with peptidoglycan in cell wall

    • Divide by binary fission

    • Motile by flagella or cilia

    • Sensitive to antibiotics


Archaea l.jpg
Archaea

  • Ancient prokaryotes

    • Cell wall present, not peptidoglycan

    • Live in extreme environments

    • Have unusual metabolic processes

    • Not sensitive to antibiotics


Archaea18 l.jpg
Archaea

  • Methanogens -strict anaerobes

    • Produce methane from CO2 + H2

    • Live in anaerobic mud lakes

    • Intestine of cows


Archaea19 l.jpg
Archaea

  • Halophiles

    • Require high concentration of salt

      • Maintain cell wall

    • Spoilage of food-salted fish

    • Salt lakes


Archaea20 l.jpg
Archaea

  • Thermophiles

    • Live in hot sulfurous waters or acidic water

    • Nucleic acids/proteins do not function at low temperatures

    • Volcanic vents in ocean


Eukarya l.jpg
Eukarya

  • All eukaryotes

  • Cell wall varies in composition

  • Not sensitive to antibiotics

  • Fungi-yeasts and molds

  • Protists-slime molds, protozoa, & algae

  • Plants & animals


Endosymbiotic theory l.jpg
Endosymbiotic Theory

  • Eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes

  • Supported by similarities between prokaryotes & organelles in eukaryotes

  • Mitochondria & chloroplasts same size as prokaryote cell

    • Contain DNA, 70S ribosomes

  • Endosymbiont-organism that lives within another


Support for theory l.jpg
Support for Theory

  • Prokary Eukary Mitoch & Chloro

  • DNA circular linear circular

  • Histones No Yes No

  • Ribosomes 70S 80S 70S

  • Growth binary mitosis binary

  • Cyanophora


  • Viruses l.jpg
    Viruses

    • Obligate intracellular parasites

    • Not cells so non living agent

    • No ribosomes

    • Classification is different


    Viroids prions l.jpg
    Viroids & Prions

    • Viroids

      • Single short piece of RNA

      • Cause disease in plants

      • ? In humans

    • Prions

      • Protein

      • Cause neurodegenerate diseases

      • Humans & animals

      • CJD & mad cow


    New challenges l.jpg
    New Challenges

    • Antibiotic resistance

      • MRSA, VRE & ESBL

    • Emerging diseases

      • SARS & Avian Influenza

    • Bioterrorism

      • Anthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism