Microbiology. Microbiology is the Science that studies Microorganisms. Microorganisms, roughly, are those living things that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Microorganisms cannot be distinguished Phylogenetically from “Macroorganisms”
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Description: eubacteria, archaeabacteria, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, acid fast, cyanobacteria
Types: procaryotes, absorbers, wet conditions, animal decomposers, cell walls, unicellular
Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoautotrophs
Durable state: endospores (some)
Diseases: tetanus, botulism, gonorrhea, chlamydia, tuberculosis, etc., etc., etc.
Description: blue-green algae
Types: photosynthetic aquatic procaryotes, green lake scum, cell walls
Nutrient Type: photoautotrophs
Durable state: ?
Description: photosynthetic aquatic eucaryotes, cell walls, both unicellular and multicellular types
Types: brown, red, green, diatoms, dinoflagellates, euglenoids
Nutrient Type: photoautotrophs
Diseases: Some poisonings associated with unicellular types: Alexandrium causes Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Dinophysis causes Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries causes Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) [some would describe some as protists]
Description: yeasts (unicellular fungi), molds (filamentous fungi)
Types: eucaryotes, absorbers, dry conditions, plant decomposers, cell walls, ~100 human pathogens
Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs
Durable state: spores
Diseases: mycoses: candida, ringworm (pictured), athlete's foot, jock itch, etc.
Description: Flatworms (platyhelminths), roundworms (nematodes)
Types: metazoan (multicellular animal) parasites, engulfers and absorbers
Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs
Diseases:trichinosis, hook worm, tape worm (pictured are scolex-heads of), etc.
Description: Unicellular and slime molds, flagellates, ciliates
Types: eucaryotes, parasites, engulfers and absorbers, wet conditions, no cell wall, ~30 human pathogens
Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs (some classifications include some photoautotrophs as well)
Durable state: cysts (some)
Diseases: malaria, giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, etc. (shown are harmless--to us--protist components of pond water: Amoeba, Blepharisma, Paramecium, Peranema, & Stentor)
Description: Not cells but enveloped or non-enveloped
Sorry, no images - I ran out of steam
Types: acellular, obligate intracellular parasites
Nutrient Type: not applicable
Durable state: virion particles, some can encase in durable state of host
Diseases: common cold, flu, HIV, herpes, chicken pox, etc.
Examples: Escherichia coli, E. coli, Escherichia spp., and “the genus Escherichia”
The genus name (Escherichia) is always capitalized
The species name (coli) is never capitalized
The species name is never used without the genus name (e.g., coli standing alone, by itself, is a mistake!)
The genus name may be used without the species name (e.g., Escherichia may stand alone, though when doing so it no longer actually describes a species)
When both genus and species names are present, the genus name always comes first (e.g., Escherichia coli, not coli Escherichia)
Both the genus and species names are always italicized (or underlined)—always underline if writing binomials by hand
The first time a binomial is used in a work, it must be spelled out in its entirety (e.g., E. coli standing alone in a manuscript is not acceptable unless you have already written Escherichia coli in the manuscript)
The next time a biniomial is used it may be abbreviated (e.g., E. for Escherichia) though this is done typically only when used in combination with the species name (e.g., E. coli)
The species name is never abbreviated
It is a good idea to abbreviate unambiguously if there is any potential for confusion (e.g., Enterococcus vs. Escherichia)
These rules are to be followed when employing binomial nomenclature even in your speech. It is proper to refer to Escherichia coli as E. coli or even as Escherichia, but it is not proper to call it coli or E.C.!
Failure to employ correct binomial nomenclature on exams will result in the subtraction of one point (on 200-Point Scale) per erroneous usage
When in doubt, write the whole thing out (and underline)!
Note How Each is Italicized!
Not pathogenic (to us, at least)
Whooping cough (pertusis)
Trachomas (blindness), etc.
Gas gangrene & food poisoning
Lung, ear infection, meningitis
Atypical pneumoniae (common)
Damage to fetus
Plague (older name)
Opportunist (e.g., burns)
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
TSS, food poisoning, etc.
Plague (newer name)
Each carton of Bugs+Plus provides easy to follow step-by-step instructions, containers of specially-formulated wet and dry nutrients and a container of microbes cultured for their ability to digest oil and other petroleum derivatives.
These are the ~harmless microorganisms found on your body.
Every part of your body that normally comes in contact with outside world (deep lungs and stomach are exceptions)
On the morning of July 2, 1881, Charles Guiteau fired two shots at President James Garfield as he entered a Washington, DC train station. One shot grazed Garfield's hand. The second entered the President's spine near the right 11th rib but did not exit.
The x-ray, which would easily have pinpointed the bullet's location, had not yet been discovered. So the President's physicians did what all competent physicians had routinely done in such cases. They probed the entry wound with special instruments designed for that purpose - but without success.
The bullet remained lost inside the President. Medical historians believe Garfield could have survived his injury if the attending physicians had washed their hands and used sterile instruments. In 1881, though, such antisepsis techniques were still under debate within the American medical profession.
Just reading a lab exercise is not the same as getting ready to do a lab—you also need to outline for yourself, either mentally or on paper, just what it is that you will be doing
I know that making such an outline with unfamiliar material is not easy—that is why you need to look at your lab schedule, where I attempt to guide you through what it is that you will need to be doing
You have to try to remember that a culture that has settled will need to be resuspended—and you have to not just go through the motions: you actually need to resuspend it!
It may be that some of you have not had previous training in using a microscope; after class today we therefore will have a “microscope 101” session in B211