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HINARI/Basic Internet Concepts (module 1.1) MODULE 1.1 Basic Internet Concepts Instructions - This part of the: course is a PowerPoint demonstration intended to introduce you to Basic Internet Concepts.

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module 1 1 basic internet concepts
MODULE 1.1 Basic Internet Concepts

Instructions - This part of the:

  • course is a PowerPoint demonstration intended to introduce you to Basic Internet Concepts.
  • module is off-line and is intended as an information resource for reference use.
  • Background – HINARI, AGORA, OARE
  • Basic Internet Concepts
  • Structure of the Internet
  • Common Internet Protocols
  • Technical Requirements for HINARI
objectives of hinari agora oare
  • To connect developing world researchers with the international scientific community
  • To reduce the ‘publishing gap’ and improve the quality of locally produced journals
  • Ultimately – improve health, food security and environment in relation to MDG of 2015
hinari h ealth i nternetwork a ccess to r esearch i nitiative
HINARI (Health Internetwork Access to Research Initiative)
  • Online portal to publishers
  • Coordinated by WHO/Yale University, USA
  • Free/Low cost to 113 countries
  • Over 5000 journals / 120 publishers
  • Medicine and health
  • 2903 institutions
  • Data: 06 2008
agora a ccess to g lobal o nline r esearch in a griculture
AGORA(Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture)
  • Online portal to publishers
  • Coordinated by FAO/Cornell University, USA
  • Free/Low cost to 113 countries
  • 913 journals / 40 publishers
  • Agriculture and related sciences
  • 1042 institutions
  • Data: 06 2008
oare o nline a ccess to r esearch in the e nvironment
OARE (Online Access to Research in the Environment)
  • Online portal to access environmental information
  • Coordinated by UNEP/Yale University
  • Free/Low cost to 108 countries
  • Over 1300 journals / 340 publishers and scholarly societies
  • Environment and related sciences
  • 900 institutions
  • Data: 06 2008
hinari agora oare eligibility
  • Free (Band 1): 72 countries with GNI per capita of <$1250
  • $1000/yr (Band 2): 36 Countries/territories with GNI per capita of $1250-3500
  • Eligibility is based on GNI per capita figures as reported by the World Bank
primary target audiences
Primary Target Audiences
  • Research and teaching universities
  • National research organizations, government offices and ministries
  • Publicly funded and not-for-profit agencies
what is the internet
What is the Internet?
  • Publicly accessible network of interconnected computers which communicate via software protocol standards
  • Easily accessed (via modem and phone line, ISDN, direct cable landline, satellite)
  • Expanding global infrastructure; is pan-national (no central control)
  • Regarding information delivery, the most significant change since the development of the printing press in the 15th century!
internet growth
Internet Growth
  • Exponential growth for the last few years
  • The Web Server market has grown from 120,000 units in 1995 to 45 million in 2003
  • In 1993, 90,000 people used the Internet; in 2002, 600 million people used the Internet; in 2007, over 1 billion people will use the Internet
  • Hardware costs are decreasing year on year
  • Over the next 10 years electronic commerce will boom, reaching $100s of billions by the year 2010
server client interface
Server/Client Interface


Hardware + Software




Hardware + Software

internet architecture
Internet Architecture

Give me file x

Computer on the Internet holding

information - remote “server”

Here it is

Desktop computer - “client”

internet services
Internet Services
  • The World-Wide Web (Multimedia Information Services)
  • Search tools (via the World-Wide Web)
  • Communication (E-mail)
  • Retrieval/information transfer (FTP)
the w orld w ide w eb
The World-Wide Web
  • WWW, web, W3, World-Wide Web
  • Often what people mean by the Internet
  • Based on hypertext - the ability to link text and documents dynamically and interactively
  • Uses hypertext markup language - HTML
  • The WWW is a global standard
  • Can use text, graphics, sound and video
  • Anyone can link to and make use of the web
delivery dial up connection
Delivery: Dial Up Connection

Speed of connection

Quality of telephone line

modem speed: usually 56 kilobytes per second

ISP services


International Gateway Link

Phone Line


ISP Server

Client Computer

With Modem

  • Speed of line
  • Quality of line
delivery full time connection
Delivery: Full-time Connection

Speed of connection

LAN Server speed,

Bandwidth (64k,128k, 256k, 1Mb)

Mode of link (radio, leased line, satellite)


Leased Line

Permanent Connection


LAN Server

  • Speed of line
  • Quality of line

Local Area


access speed issues
Access Speed Issues

Cables vary in speed and amount of information they can carry

Sometimes cables are slow in carrying information or lose the signal, especially if:

information must cross long distances

too much traffic on the cable

cable capacity, or bandwidth, is low

web browser
Web Browser
  • Browser is the software that is used to view the Web
  • Standard browser features
    • scrolling, back, forward, stop, home, refresh
  • Navigation - in built features
    • back, forward, home, go to, yes, no
  • Search on a single web page
  • Multiple Web browser windows
browser customization
Browser Customization
  • Toolbar options
  • Link to a specific homepage
  • Using the right click mouse button
  • Using favorites or bookmarks
    • Adding
    • Organizing
    • Editing
internet requirements for hinari
Internet Requirements for HINARI
  • 56 kbps modem, local area network (LAN), or cable connection required.
  • A hard-wired full-time Internet connection (T1 or better) enables the fastest downloads.
  • Satellite or network connections, though slower, are also adequate.
  • Web Browser - Internet Explorer version 4.0 or higher OR Netscape version 6 or higher OR Mozilla Firefox 1.0 or higher
adobe acrobat for pdfs
Adobe Acrobat for PDFs
  • You will need an Adobe Acrobat Reader to view journal articles in PDF (Portable Document Format).
  • Adobe Acrobat Reader can be downloaded for FREE from the Adobe web site:



This page contains the link to download option for Adobe Reader version 8.1.2

This is viewed using the Mozilla Firefox web browser.

the internet address or url
The Internet Address or URL

This page is being viewed in the Internet Explorer Browser. Browsers allow computers to read Hyper Text Mark-up Language OR HTML.

The Address or URL is typed in here.

entering a url address in the address box
Entering a URL address in the address box

After entering a URL address in the address box click Go or hit the RETURN key. In this example we have entered http://www.who.int for the WHO website

hypertext links
Hypertext links

Links to other pages are usually underlined or in another colour of text.

forward and back navigation buttons
Forward and back navigation buttons

The arrow buttons on the tool bar allow users to move Back and Forward to pages within the website.

home page button
Home page button

The House icon on the tool bar will take you back to the browser’s default Home Page.

this is the end of module 1
This is the end of Module 1

This is the end of Module 1.1

There is a Work Book to accompany this part of the module. The workbook will take you through a live session covering the topics included in this demonstration with working examples.

Updated 02 2008