Impact of Two Methods of Listening to Music During Exercise on Perceived Exertion and Overall Physical Activity Uha Reddy, M.D.
Exercise, Exercise, Exercise • Benefits • Improved Cardiovascular Health • Glycemic Control • Cancer prevention and treatment (breast, prostate) • Smoking cessation • Decreased risk of symptomatic gallstones • Psychological well-being
Exercise Guidelines • For healthy adults under age 65 • At least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week • How many people in the U.S meet this goal? • Less than 50%
Why? • Common reasons given for not exercising • Lack of time • Boring or monotonous nature of exercise routine • Discomfort associated with exercise (fatigue, muscle aches, etc. . .)
Music • How music helps? • Reduces sensations of fatigue • Improves mood state • Influences psychomotor arousal • Encourages synchronization
Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) • RPE is a rating of how heavy or strenuous an activity feels • Ranges from 6 – 20 • 6 is no exertion at all • 20 is maximal exertion • Listening to music while exercising reduces the RPE
Synchronization • Moving in synchrony to the beat of the music (stepping, pedaling, etc. . .) • Beats per minute (BPM) of the song • For example • Power walking (115-139 BPM) • Jogging/running (147-160 BPM) • Stair climbing (124-128 BPM)
Synchronous vs. Asynchronous • Asynchronous: exercising while passively listening to music, not moving to the beat • Very few studies have been done comparing synchronous to asynchronous exercise
Our study • Goal • to evaluate the effect of synchronous vs. asynchronous exercise on RPE and overall physical activity in adults who participate in regular exercise (over a 6 week course)
Hypotheses • Synchronous exercise with music will reduce the RPE and improve affect compared with asynchronous exercise with music • Instruction in synchronous exercise with music motivates the participant to exercise more frequently than with asynchronous exercise
Inclusion Criteria • Plan to enroll 46 participants • Adult employees of Georgetown University (20-55 years of age) • Engage in regular physical activity of at least 2 exercise sessions per week (80 mins per week) of light to moderate exercise • Listen to music while exercising
Exclusion Criteria • Major medical condition which prevents regular exercise • Use of Beta Blocker medication • Participation in varsity sports
Study Set-Up • 6 week study • Testing/Monitoring: • Exercise stress test (Georgetown Cardiology department) • Supervised exercise sessions weekly (on elliptical machine for a 50-55 minute session each week) • Heart rate monitor • RPE at 15, 30 and 45 minutes • Post-session questionnaires
Study Set-Up • Kenz Lifecorder Plus Accelerometer (advanced pedometer) • Records steps, when there is an increase in activity, activity time and calories • Post-Session Questionnaires • Physical Activity Affect Scale (PAAS) • Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI)
Control Group • Introductory lecture (60 mins) • Encourage patients to exercise as frequently as they would like with a minimum of once per week • Exercise diary • Duration, RPE during the last 10 mins
Intervention Group • Introductory lecture and instruction on synchronous exercise • MP3 music player • 28 playlists with a variety of songs (45-55 mins duration) • Laminated cards of each playlist with instructions (BPM, location of the beat – drum, guitar)
Intervention Group • Encourage patients to exercise as frequently as they would like with a minimum of once per week • Exercise diary • Duration, RPE during the last 10 mins
Primary and Secondary Outcomes • Primary • Change in RPE from baseline at 6 weeks • Comparison between groups • Secondary • Difference in total activity time between groups • Difference in heart rate • Difference in affect, interest/enjoyment
Stay Tuned • Kick-off September 2008 (rolling admissions) • Last group of participants will likely complete study in November/December 2008 • Then, Data Analysis. . .
Thank you! • Stephen Clement, MD • Eileen M. Pelayo, RN
References • Anshel MH, Marisi DQ. Effect of music and rhythm on physical performance. Research Quarterly. 49:109-113, 1978. • Bernardi L, Porta C, Sleight P. Cardiovascular , cerebrovascular and respiratory changes induced by different types of music in musicians and nonmusicians: the importance of silence. Heart. 92:445-452, 2006. • Karageorghis C, Terry P. The psychological effects of music in sport and exercise: A review. J Sport Behavior. 20: 54-64, 1997. • Manini Y, Everhart JE, Patel KV et al. Daily activity energy expenditure and mortality in older adults. JAMA 296:171-179, 2006.
References • Physical activity guidelines for healthy adults under age 65. http://www.acsm.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home_Page&TEMPLATE=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&CONTENTID=7764 (accessed 25 Aug 2008). • Smoll FL, Schultz RW. Accuracy of rhythmic motor behavior in response to preferred and nonpreferred tempos. J Human Movement Studies. 8: 123-130, 1982. • Szmedra L, Bacharach DW. Effect of music in perceived exertion, plasma lactate, norepinephrine and cardiovascular hemodynamics during treadmill running. Int J Sport Med. 19:32-37, 1998. • Peterson, DM. Overview of the benefits and risks of exercise. http://www.uptodate.com (accessed 25 Aug 2008).