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Impact of Two Methods of Listening to Music During Exercise on Perceived Exertion and Overall Physical Activity. Uha Reddy, M.D. Exercise, Exercise, Exercise. Benefits Improved Cardiovascular Health Glycemic Control Cancer prevention and treatment (breast, prostate) Smoking cessation
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Impact of Two Methods of Listening to Music During Exercise on Perceived Exertion and Overall Physical Activity Uha Reddy, M.D.
Exercise, Exercise, Exercise • Benefits • Improved Cardiovascular Health • Glycemic Control • Cancer prevention and treatment (breast, prostate) • Smoking cessation • Decreased risk of symptomatic gallstones • Psychological well-being
Exercise Guidelines • For healthy adults under age 65 • At least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week • How many people in the U.S meet this goal? • Less than 50%
Why? • Common reasons given for not exercising • Lack of time • Boring or monotonous nature of exercise routine • Discomfort associated with exercise (fatigue, muscle aches, etc. . .)
Music • How music helps? • Reduces sensations of fatigue • Improves mood state • Influences psychomotor arousal • Encourages synchronization
Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) • RPE is a rating of how heavy or strenuous an activity feels • Ranges from 6 – 20 • 6 is no exertion at all • 20 is maximal exertion • Listening to music while exercising reduces the RPE
Synchronization • Moving in synchrony to the beat of the music (stepping, pedaling, etc. . .) • Beats per minute (BPM) of the song • For example • Power walking (115-139 BPM) • Jogging/running (147-160 BPM) • Stair climbing (124-128 BPM)
Synchronous vs. Asynchronous • Asynchronous: exercising while passively listening to music, not moving to the beat • Very few studies have been done comparing synchronous to asynchronous exercise
Our study • Goal • to evaluate the effect of synchronous vs. asynchronous exercise on RPE and overall physical activity in adults who participate in regular exercise (over a 6 week course)
Hypotheses • Synchronous exercise with music will reduce the RPE and improve affect compared with asynchronous exercise with music • Instruction in synchronous exercise with music motivates the participant to exercise more frequently than with asynchronous exercise
Inclusion Criteria • Plan to enroll 46 participants • Adult employees of Georgetown University (20-55 years of age) • Engage in regular physical activity of at least 2 exercise sessions per week (80 mins per week) of light to moderate exercise • Listen to music while exercising
Exclusion Criteria • Major medical condition which prevents regular exercise • Use of Beta Blocker medication • Participation in varsity sports
Study Set-Up • 6 week study • Testing/Monitoring: • Exercise stress test (Georgetown Cardiology department) • Supervised exercise sessions weekly (on elliptical machine for a 50-55 minute session each week) • Heart rate monitor • RPE at 15, 30 and 45 minutes • Post-session questionnaires
Study Set-Up • Kenz Lifecorder Plus Accelerometer (advanced pedometer) • Records steps, when there is an increase in activity, activity time and calories • Post-Session Questionnaires • Physical Activity Affect Scale (PAAS) • Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI)
Control Group • Introductory lecture (60 mins) • Encourage patients to exercise as frequently as they would like with a minimum of once per week • Exercise diary • Duration, RPE during the last 10 mins
Intervention Group • Introductory lecture and instruction on synchronous exercise • MP3 music player • 28 playlists with a variety of songs (45-55 mins duration) • Laminated cards of each playlist with instructions (BPM, location of the beat – drum, guitar)
Intervention Group • Encourage patients to exercise as frequently as they would like with a minimum of once per week • Exercise diary • Duration, RPE during the last 10 mins
Primary and Secondary Outcomes • Primary • Change in RPE from baseline at 6 weeks • Comparison between groups • Secondary • Difference in total activity time between groups • Difference in heart rate • Difference in affect, interest/enjoyment
Stay Tuned • Kick-off September 2008 (rolling admissions) • Last group of participants will likely complete study in November/December 2008 • Then, Data Analysis. . .
Thank you! • Stephen Clement, MD • Eileen M. Pelayo, RN
References • Anshel MH, Marisi DQ. Effect of music and rhythm on physical performance. Research Quarterly. 49:109-113, 1978. • Bernardi L, Porta C, Sleight P. Cardiovascular , cerebrovascular and respiratory changes induced by different types of music in musicians and nonmusicians: the importance of silence. Heart. 92:445-452, 2006. • Karageorghis C, Terry P. The psychological effects of music in sport and exercise: A review. J Sport Behavior. 20: 54-64, 1997. • Manini Y, Everhart JE, Patel KV et al. Daily activity energy expenditure and mortality in older adults. JAMA 296:171-179, 2006.
References • Physical activity guidelines for healthy adults under age 65. http://www.acsm.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home_Page&TEMPLATE=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&CONTENTID=7764 (accessed 25 Aug 2008). • Smoll FL, Schultz RW. Accuracy of rhythmic motor behavior in response to preferred and nonpreferred tempos. J Human Movement Studies. 8: 123-130, 1982. • Szmedra L, Bacharach DW. Effect of music in perceived exertion, plasma lactate, norepinephrine and cardiovascular hemodynamics during treadmill running. Int J Sport Med. 19:32-37, 1998. • Peterson, DM. Overview of the benefits and risks of exercise. http://www.uptodate.com (accessed 25 Aug 2008).