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HIP ROOFS. Created BY Michael Martin July 2004 / revised may 2007. Hip & Valley Roofs. “3 Basic Principles” All ridges must be level & parallel to wall plates All rafters must be placed at 90 ° to wall plates – regardless of the roof shape

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hip roofs

HIP ROOFS

Created BY Michael Martin July 2004/ revised may 2007

hip valley roofs
Hip & Valley Roofs
  • “3 Basic Principles”
  • All ridges must be level & parallel to wall plates
  • All rafters must be placed at 90° to wall plates – regardless of the roof shape
  • All hip and valleys must bisect the angle of the corner
  • Roof members are set out on centre lines
  • (Page 316 of text)
components handout
Components - handout
  • Wall plate
  • Ridge
  • Centering rafter
  • Crown end
  • Hip
  • Common rafters
  • Creepers
  • Purlin
set out all relates to center lines
Set out – all relates to center lines

Centring Rafters

Ridge

Hip

Crown end rafter

new members summary to complete in handout
New Members – summary to complete in handout
  • Hip – Inclined member from wall plate at external corner to end of ridge
  • Crown end rafter – special rafter running from wall plate (center span position) to end of ridge
  • Creeper rafter – rafter cut in length to join hip
set out
Set out
  • Ceiling frame also depends on set out of rafters
  • Set out as opposite
  • Refer to handout Page 3
the ridge for a hipped roof
The Ridge for a hipped roof
  • Length = length of the building – width of building + rafter width
  • See hand out for reference, last page
pattern rafters page 347
Pattern Rafters – page 347
  • Now include
  • Common / centering
  • Crown end rafter
  • Creeper rafters

Centre line to centre line first

pattern rafters
Pattern Rafters
  • Remember
  • Common / centering – reduce by ½ thickness of ridge
  • Crown End – reduce by ½ thickness of common rafter / ceiling rafter
  • Creepers – are calculated on pattern – by determining long point
determining long point of creeper
Determining long point of creeper
  • 1st mark out spacing from centre line
  • 2nd take off half mitre thickness of hip
  • 3rd add on half thickness of common rafter
  • You now have long point
  • Continue to mark out other creepers
bevels common rafters centering rafters from p 333
Bevels – common rafters & centering rafters – from P 333

Plumb bevel

Rise

Level bevel

½ span

bevels hips
Bevels - hips
  • Create another triangle in the roof

Plumb bevel

Level bevel

Rise

Plan length hip

bevels hip
Bevels - hip
  • Relate to true length per metre again
  • As you do for common rafter
bevels hip eg 30 pitch
Bevels – hip (eg) 30° pitch
  • Rise per m run – tan 30° = .577
  • Use Pythagoras to create plan length of hip
  • √1.0² + 1.0² = 1.414 (plan length of hip)
  • True length per 1.414 run
  • √1.414² + .577² = 1.527
bevels hip1
Bevels - hip
  • You have now created that new triangle
  • You can reduce this to fit steel square
  • Take bevels from this

True length 1.527

Rise

.577

Plan length hip

1.414

bevels
Bevels
  • You now have your first four bevels
    • Plumb bevel common rafter
    • Level bevel common rafter
    • Plumb bevel hip
    • Level bevel hip
  • In a hipped roof, there are eight (8) bevels all up
bevels1
Bevels
  • These 8 bevels can be developed in a number of ways
  • Eventually you’ll choose which one suits you
    • Geometric (we will draw ourselves)
    • Steel square (from P339 text)
    • Direct method (from P343 in text)
    • Or combined triangles (not in text)
  • We will cover each one separately, one by one later
main roof components
Main Roof Components
  • 1st lets concentrate on what we know
    • Common rafters
    • Centering rafters
    • Hips
    • Creepers
    • ridge
what we ve done already
What we’ve done already
  • Common rafters – set out on pattern
  • Crown end rafters – set out on pattern
  • Creepers – set out on pattern
  • Hips – we need to look at further
hip rafters
Hip rafters
  • Before you erect hip
  • You have to take into account
  • Reductions
  • Ref: P16
slide22
Hips
  • 1st at the ridge the hip must be reduced in length
  • You can calculate it or
  • Measure it in place
  • In principle it is reduced as shown opposite
  • Hand out – shortening at “x”
slide23
Hips
  • 2nd at the birdsmouth you must reduce as well
  • Calculations of length give you position at outside of plate
  • Typically you cut corner to give better seating
  • Therefore birdsmouth must be reduced to suit
  • Handout – shortening at “y”
slide24
Hips
  • Set-out of birdsmouth on hip
  • Top of rafters, including hips, must be on the one plane
  • Set out of hip birdsmouth as opposite
  • See handout
hipped roof
Hipped Roof
  • Now you can build the main structure of the roof
  • Edge bevels for creepers and hips we’ll show you in workshop
  • Purlins we’ll look at after we develop other bevels
  • Drawing boards next week
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