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Fitness and Health . Fitness, Health & Wellness. Fitness Health Wellness. Assessing Fitness. Pre-exercise informed consent health history physical examination (Resting). Nb: typically cardiovascular. Cholesterol. Total Cholesterol ( good if <200 mg/dL) High density lipoprotein (HDL)

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fitness health wellness
Fitness, Health & Wellness
  • Fitness
  • Health
  • Wellness
assessing fitness
Assessing Fitness
  • Pre-exercise
    • informed consent
    • health history
    • physical examination (Resting)

Nb: typically cardiovascular

  • Total Cholesterol ( good if <200 mg/dL)
    • High density lipoprotein (HDL)
    • Low density lipoprotein (LDL)
  • Triglycerides ( good if < 200 mg/dL)
dynamic exercise testing
Dynamic (Exercise) Testing
  • Bruce Protocol
  • Naughton Protocol
basic principles of training
Basic principles of training
  • Specificity
  • Overload
  • Individualisation
  • Reversibility or detraining
  • Periodisation
    • seasonal shifts
  • Overtraining
anaerobic exercise training
Anaerobic Exercise Training

Goal is improvement in muscular strength and power (1RM or 10 RM)

aerobic exercise training
Aerobic Exercise Training

Providing an overload stress to the aerobic system

  • continuous training @ % of VO2 max
best of both worlds interval training
Best of both worlds: Interval Training

Alternations between relatively higher-intensity bouts of exercise with rest

overload principle
Overload Principle

Improvements in performance capacity occur when regular physical activity is increased above the level that the performer usually experiences

overload principle1
Overload Principle
  • Intensity
  • Duration
  • Frequency
acsm recommendation of exercise for health
ACSM recommendation of Exercise for Health
  • Intensity from 40 - 85% of VO2 max or 55 to 90 % of age predicted maximal HR
  • Duration for 15 - 60 min of continuous or interval training
  • Frequency from 3-5 times/week
  • Include moderate intensity strength training of the major muscle groups twice per week

Once exercise stops, the positive effects of resistive exercise or endurance training wear off at the same rate that training occurred (see example from “genes” reading).

detraining and space travel
Detraining and Space Travel
  • 30 days of space flight

Periodising a training program is a way of manipulating the structure of the program so that you balance out volume and intensity over time in such a way that you prevent overtraining and optimize improvements


Reducing training volume several weeks before competition to try to enhance performance


General adaptation syndrome

  • being stressed/overloaded with repeated rest results in general strength gains
heart disease
Heart Disease
  • Coronary artery disease

accumulation of fatty substances, like cholesterol in the arteries

exercise and cad
Exercise and CAD
  • Reduces high blood pressure*
  • Reduces high cholesterol*
  • Reduces stress**
  • Reduces body fat**

* primary risk factor

** secondary risk factor


Systolic pressure is associated with pressure needed to pump blood out of the heart.

Diastolic pressureis the pressure in the

circulatory system when the heart is not

contracting and represents resistance to

blood flow.

  • Normal 120 / 80 (mm Hg)
  • Borderline hypertension 140 / 90
  • Essential hypertension 160 / 95
  • Total Cholesterol ( good if <200 mg/dL)
  • Triglycerides ( good if < 200 mg/dL)

(From Verrill et al., 1994)

body mass index bmi

> 27.2 Men

> 26.9 Women


Body Mass Index (BMI)

A frequently used indicator to consider obesity and is calculated as:

From National Institutes of Health


Sugar or glucose cannot be used by the cells because insulin not working effectively to open receptors allowing glucose to enter cells.

diabetes and exercise
Diabetes and Exercise
  • Exercise acts like insulin!!!
    • Type I can reduce insulin use
    • Type II can maybe reverse effects of disease
  • Must maintain tight glucose control
    • hypoglycemia
    • hyperglycemia
  • Organizing exercise, meals and medication
  • Good shoes!!!
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease copd
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

The most common lung disorders include:

  • Bronchitis
  • Asthma
  • emphysema
copd exercise
COPD & Exercise
  • Both cardiorespiratory and resistive exercise depends on severity
  • Useful for treatment but not prevention
  • Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue. This leads to increased bone fragility and risk of fracture, particularly of the hip, spine and wrist.

Normal Bone

Osteoporotic Bone


90% of osteoporosis patients are post-menopausal women!!!! Prevention involves:

mental health
Mental Health
  • Return for Sport Psychology chapter!!!!
fitness and health summary
Fitness and Health: Summary
  • Definition
  • Assessment of Fitness
  • Training For Fitness
  • Health benefits from Exercise