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CDB 312-DB Bootcamp Goals: Learn the basics on the development of the model organisms used at Vanderbilt. Descriptive embryology (not experimental zoology, developmental biology, genetic manipulation, etc) Care and feeding Compare and contrast Course Management Director: David Bader

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CDB 312-DB Bootcamp


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slide1

CDB 312-DB Bootcamp

Goals: Learn the basics on the development of the model organisms used at Vanderbilt.

Descriptive embryology

(not experimental zoology, developmental biology, genetic manipulation, etc)

Care and feeding

Compare and contrast

Course Management

Director: David Bader

Student Director: Rachel Skelton

Student Director (in training): Abby Olena

Coordinator: Kim Kane

Grades

Attendance.

Asking questions/Participation.

Getting into it.

Final “Exam”

slide2

Volvox carteri

-This is one of the first multicellular organisms seen in nature.

-Two cell types: inner gamates (around 12-16) and outer epithelium (a few thousands).

-The epithelium resembles Chlamydomonas.

-Asexual reproduction is most common.

-Sexual reproduction occurs with stress and is stimulated by one of the most bioactive compounds found in nature.

What comes with multicellularity?

slide3

Death of the individual first appears in the life cycle.

Separation from the environment is possible.

Body compartments are formed.

Cell diversification is possible.

Multicellularity also introduces embryology.

Volvox has a peculiar event in its developmental program.

slide4

Inversion of V. carteri is a critical step in its embryology.

With asexual reproduction, a haploid cell divides. Two cell types are generated. Epithelial cells form an embryonic sphere.

SEM on left and standard histology on right. (From D. Kirk)

Here’s the story:

Haploid embryos have gonidia on outside and epithelium with flagella on inside.

A phialopore forms and the epithelium “inverts” so that flagella are outside. Gonidia are translocated to the inside of the adult.

Even in this simplest of organisms, development is highly complex.

slide5

Anatomical Positions

Organisms, organ systems, and organs have names for the different surfaces and positions.

In Thursday’s lab, use the right terms when you examine embryos.

slide6

What “larger” questions in biology are best approached by Developmental Biology?

Differentiation

Morphogenesis

Growth

Reproduction

Evolution

Nature/Nurture

Repair???

how one cell gives rise to many different cell types

generation of ordered forms comprised of organized cells

regulated cell growth is essential

instructions must be passed between generations

species diversity with colinearity of mechanism and genes

how the environment influences developmental processes

slide7

Things don’t always look as they seem.

Embryology is a moving target in terms of??

Morphogenesis

Cell division and migration

Gene expression and cell diversification

Reaction with the environment

Bottom line: Sometimes you can’t predict what you will see.

slide8

What is the relationship to mom during these processes?

What are the major stages/events in embryogenesis?

Fertilization

Cleavage

Morula

Blastula

Gastrulation

Partitioning of germ layers

Organogenesis

Growth

Sexual maturation

Reproduction

Death

slide9

Stages of early vertebrate embryogenesis

zygote

single cell

cleavage

many cells

morula

ball of cells

blastula

hollow ball of cells

gastrula

cells move inside to fill cavity

neurula

neural plate/neural tube form

organogenesis

maturation/differentiation of organs

THE BIG POINT:

All/nearly all embryos go through these phases with

conservation of the process and variation.

slide10

blastomeres

micromeres

macromeres

Cleavage

holoblastic, equal divisions:

holoblastic, unequal divisions:

slide11

mouse, human, ascidian, amphioxus

holoblastic/equal = cleavage plane goes through cell

meiolecithal = little to no yolky cytoplasm

slide12

mouse, human, ascidian, amphioxus

frog

holoblastic/unequal = different size blastomeres result

mesolecithal = medium amount of yolky cytoplasm

slide13

mouse, human, ascidian, amphioxus

frog

meroblastic = cleavage plane only goes partly through cell

macrolecithal = large amount of yolky cytoplasm

fish

chick

slide14

yolky cells

meiolecithal

mesolecithal

amphioxus

frog

Blastodisc

yolk

macrolecithal

chick

Blastula: Ball of cells with a space (blastocoel)

The relationship of blastocoel and yolk/yolk-carrying cells is critical in understanding descriptive development and potential signaling pathways.

slide15

Early mammalian development

inner cell mass

compaction

blastocyst

slide16

Gastrulation:

The most simple form.

slide17

Let’s discuss:

1. The movement of cells to form germ layers

2. Partitioning of mesoderm.

3. The vertebrate body plan and how it explains adult function.

slide18

How do embryos move cells around?

How do these cells form organs?

As epithelial sheets. As single cells. Examples???

Next, compartmentalize mesoderm

slide19

This basic structure is preserved in vertebrates, even in the adult. Compartmentalization of mesoderm is critical.

From Meier, JEEM, 1980

Note the structure of epithelia.

Let’s fold the ‘bro.

epithelial movements to make the gut
Epithelial movements to make the gut

Can this really explain gut structure and function?

Note the retention of epithelial orientation. Does epithelium ever move over epithelium?

slide21

Mesodermal/endodermal relationships: retention of those relationships?

Structure varies, abruptly, throughout the alimentary canal in response to function.

slide22

Esophagus

What comes from what?

What is exocrine? What is endocrine?

slide26

zygote

single cell

cleavage

many cells

morula

ball of cells

blastula

hollow ball of cells

gastrula

cells move inside to fill cavity

neurula

neural plate/neural tube form

organogenesis

maturation/differentiation of organs