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Chapter 15 Urban America. Section 4 The Rebirth of Reform. Social Criticism. *Don’t Write* Industrialization & urbanization led to debates among Americans over the issue of how to handle society’s problems. Social Criticism. 1879 – Henry George wrote Progress and Poverty .

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chapter 15 urban america

Chapter 15Urban America

Section 4

The Rebirth of Reform

social criticism
Social Criticism
  • *Don’t Write*
  • Industrialization & urbanization led to debates among Americans over the issue of how to handle society’s problems.
social criticism3
Social Criticism
  • 1879 – Henry George wrote Progress and Poverty.
  • Raised questions about American society & challenged the ideas of Social Darwinism and laissez-faire economics.
progress poverty
Progress & Poverty
  • “it becomes no easier for the masses of our people to make a living. On the contrary it becomes harder….The gulf between the employed and the employer is growing wider; social contrasts are becoming sharper; as liveried carriages appear, so do barefoot children.”
social criticism5
Social Criticism
  • 1883 – Lester Frank Ward’s Dynamic Sociology argued that humans were unlike animals because they could think and plan ahead.
  • It was cooperation and not competition that caused people to succeed.
  • Wanted more gov’t involvement.
  • Became known as Reform Darwinsim.
social criticism6
Social Criticism
  • 1888 – Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward 2000-1887 shaped American reformers in the late 1800s.
  • Tells of a perfect society in the year 2000.
  • Ideas were a form of socialism.
naturalism in literature
Naturalism in Literature
  • Naturalism criticized industrial society.
  • Suggested that some people failed in life due to circumstances they couldn’t control.
  • Writer’s included:
    • Stephen Crane – Maggie, A Girl of the Streets
    • Frank Norris – McTeague
    • Jack London
    • Theodore Dreiser – Sister Carrie
the social gospel
The Social Gospel
  • Washington Gladden was a supporter of the Social Gospel.
  • He wanted to apply “Christian Law” to social problems.
  • Members of the S.G. worked to better conditions in cities through charity & justice.
social gospel
Social Gospel
  • Walter Rauschenbusch later led the movement.
  • He believed competition was the cause of most social problems.
  • This led many churches to take on community functions to improve society.
the salvation army
The Salvation Army
  • 1878 – the Salvation Army offered aid and religious counseling to urban poor.
  • Attempted to help industrial workers & urban poor through Bible studies, prayer meetings, citizenship training, and group activities.
  • Dwight Moody – president of the Chicago YMCA.
  • Founded the Moody Memorial Church.
  • 1867 – brought revivals to other cities.
  • Against the Social Gospel & Social Darwinism.
  • Felt the way to help poor was by redeeming their soul and not by providing services.
the settlement house movement
The Settlement House Movement
  • Promoted by reformers who felt it was their Christian duty to improve the living conditions of the poor.
  • Jane Addams opened Hull House (1889) and inspired many others.
  • Medical care, recreation programs, & English classes were provided.
public education
Public Education
  • The increase of industry resulted in a need for better-trained workers.
  • Americanization – becoming knowledgeable about American culture, was the key to the success of immigrant children.
education for the workplace
Education for the Workplace
  • City schools helped immigrants assimilate.
  • Grammar school system in the city divided students into 8 separate grades to help prepare for the workplace.
expanding higher education
Expanding Higher Education
  • Number of colleges greatly increased in the late 1800s.
  • Result of the Morrill Land Grant Act, which gave federal land grants to states for the purposes of establishing agricultural & mechanical colleges.
public libraries
Public Libraries
  • Free libraries provided education to city dwellers.
  • Andrew Carnegie donated millions toward the construction of libraries.