Chapter 15Urban America Section 4 The Rebirth of Reform
Social Criticism • *Don’t Write* • Industrialization & urbanization led to debates among Americans over the issue of how to handle society’s problems.
Social Criticism • 1879 – Henry George wrote Progress and Poverty. • Raised questions about American society & challenged the ideas of Social Darwinism and laissez-faire economics.
Progress & Poverty • “it becomes no easier for the masses of our people to make a living. On the contrary it becomes harder….The gulf between the employed and the employer is growing wider; social contrasts are becoming sharper; as liveried carriages appear, so do barefoot children.”
Social Criticism • 1883 – Lester Frank Ward’s Dynamic Sociology argued that humans were unlike animals because they could think and plan ahead. • It was cooperation and not competition that caused people to succeed. • Wanted more gov’t involvement. • Became known as Reform Darwinsim.
Social Criticism • 1888 – Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward 2000-1887 shaped American reformers in the late 1800s. • Tells of a perfect society in the year 2000. • Ideas were a form of socialism.
Naturalism in Literature • Naturalism criticized industrial society. • Suggested that some people failed in life due to circumstances they couldn’t control. • Writer’s included: • Stephen Crane – Maggie, A Girl of the Streets • Frank Norris – McTeague • Jack London • Theodore Dreiser – Sister Carrie
The Social Gospel • Washington Gladden was a supporter of the Social Gospel. • He wanted to apply “Christian Law” to social problems. • Members of the S.G. worked to better conditions in cities through charity & justice.
Social Gospel • Walter Rauschenbusch later led the movement. • He believed competition was the cause of most social problems. • This led many churches to take on community functions to improve society.
The Salvation Army • 1878 – the Salvation Army offered aid and religious counseling to urban poor.
YMCA • Attempted to help industrial workers & urban poor through Bible studies, prayer meetings, citizenship training, and group activities.
Revivalism • Dwight Moody – president of the Chicago YMCA. • Founded the Moody Memorial Church. • 1867 – brought revivals to other cities. • Against the Social Gospel & Social Darwinism. • Felt the way to help poor was by redeeming their soul and not by providing services.
The Settlement House Movement • Promoted by reformers who felt it was their Christian duty to improve the living conditions of the poor. • Jane Addams opened Hull House (1889) and inspired many others. • Medical care, recreation programs, & English classes were provided.
Public Education • The increase of industry resulted in a need for better-trained workers. • Americanization – becoming knowledgeable about American culture, was the key to the success of immigrant children.
Booker T. Washington opened Tuskegee Institute in 1881. African-American Education
Education for the Workplace • City schools helped immigrants assimilate. • Grammar school system in the city divided students into 8 separate grades to help prepare for the workplace.
Expanding Higher Education • Number of colleges greatly increased in the late 1800s. • Result of the Morrill Land Grant Act, which gave federal land grants to states for the purposes of establishing agricultural & mechanical colleges.
Public Libraries • Free libraries provided education to city dwellers. • Andrew Carnegie donated millions toward the construction of libraries.
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