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# 晶体的 X 射线衍射理论 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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### 一、晶体的衍射效应与衍射几何

X射线衍射的基本原理
• 晶体结构、点阵常数已知，测定波长。--X射线光谱分析；
• 已知波长，测定晶体的点阵常数。

0级衍射

-2级衍射

-1级衍射

1级衍射

2级衍射

X射线传播方向

1级衍射

0级衍射

X射线传播方向

0级衍射圆锥

(H=0)

+1级

(H=+1)

+2级

(H=+2)

William Bragg, Lawrence Bragg

2、衍射面（或称干涉面）和衍射指数

H、K、L：衍射指数；

(HKL)：衍射面

1、选择反射

(111)晶面的1级、2级和3级衍射线的布拉格角分别为：

15.13°，31.46°，51.52°

(222)晶面的1级衍射线的布拉格角为：31.46°

(333)晶面的1级衍射线的布拉格角为：51.52°

3、产生反射的极限条件

4、衍射花样与晶体结构的关系

5、衍射实验方法