History • Ancestor to entire dog family- Miacis • Lived 40-50 million years ago • Father of modern dogs- Tomarctus • From the Tomarctus, came the different groups we recognize today
Dog Groups • Sporting Group- Assist hunter in pursuit of game • Hound Group- 2 Basic types, those that hunt by sight, and those that hunt by scent • Terrier Group- ancestors bred to hunt and kill vermin; 2 sub-groups- long legged/large and short legged/small • Working Group- developed to do labor and work for humans
Dog Groups • Herding Group- developed to aid in herding livestock • Toy Group- popular as house pets/companions, especially in cities/apartment lifestyles • Nonsporting Group- Miscellaneous breeds, basically good companion dogs
Picking the Right Dog • What size dog are you interested in? • Will the dog’s level of energy fit your lifestyle? • How much exercise does it require/can you give it? • Will it live comfortably in the space you live in? • Will it be able to tolerate the climate you live in? • Do you want a dog that needs constant attention?
Do you have other pets? Will it get along with them? • Do you want a guard dog? Or a family pet? • Will you be able to handle its grooming needs? http://animal.discovery.com/breed-selector/dog-breeds.html
Common Diseases/Illnesses • Canine Distemper • Caused by inhalation of airborne virus, spreads throughout body • Most often in young dogs • Signs: vomit, diarrhea • Can be prevented with Vaccine, treatment is supporting- treating secondary infections and keeping the animal comfortable • Can cause death or permanent nervous damage
Parvovirus • Appeared in US in 1977, • 2 forms, intestinal and cardiovascular • Source of infection- ingestion of materials contaminated with feces of infected animal • Vomiting, diarrhea, not eating, dehydration, yellow-gray feces, depression, gasping for breath • Most dogs die 48-72 hours after first symptoms • Vaccinations as a puppy, revaccination annually
Rabies • All warmblooded animals can transmit rabies • Attacks central nervous system • Usually transmitted by a bite from infected animal (saliva contains virus) • Signs develop 2 weeks-3 months • Displayed in 2 ways, dumb and mad; animal acts strangely and then animal will attack anything it nears, froths at mouth followed by difficulty swallowing, followed by paralysis and death • In Dumb form, there is no mad stage; paralysis of lower jaw, followed by limbs and organs and then death
Leptospirosis • Bacteria affecting kidneys • Transmitted by eating contaminated food or water • Symptoms: high fever, loss of appetite, depression, yellowing of gums and eyes. • Vaccination for Lepto • Responds to antibiotics
Bordetella (Kennel Cough) • Transmitted by dogs when in close proximity to each other (kennels, pounds, dog shows, groomers) • Dry, Hacking cough
Hip Dysplasia • Inherited condition, occurs most commonly in large breed dogs • Affects hip joints; results in pain and hind-leg lameness from malformed ball-and-socket joint • Too much exercise at a young age, rough play, excess weight gain, rapid growth can all contribute to age when conditions occur. • Nonsurgical treatment: proper diet and exercise, supplements, anti-inflammatory medication, pain killers • Surgical treatment: joint fusion, joint replacement, cutting the joint or amputation
Arthritis • Degenerative joint disease • Causes pain, lameness and stiffness in joints • Associated with old age • Large dogs more susceptible • Drug therapy can help relieve pain • Moderate activity recommended
Internal parasites: roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, tapeworms, heartworms • External parasites: fleas, ticks, lice, mites, chiggers
Basic Care Housing: If the dog is housed outside, it must have proper shelter from wind, rain, snow, cold, and heat. Always provide fresh, clean water and provide enough food to support dog’s size and lifestyle Fencing around yard/run Plenty of exercise!
Regular Health Care Recommended Vaccinations: • Rabies! • Bordetella • Lyme Disease (if at risk) • Leptospirosis • Distemper Flea and tick Prevention: --Frontline or similar product --Keep bedding clean!
Regular Health Care • Clip Toe Nails • 45 Degree Angle • Dogs who run on hard surfaces will naturally file their own nails, will need their nails clipped less often. • Don’t cut quick- painful, bad experience
Regular Health Care • Clean Teeth • Can use toothbrush and toothpaste made for dogs • Give dog Rawhide or nylon chews • Clean Ears • Only when necessary
Training • Basic Commands: • Sit • Down • Stay • Heel • Come • Extra Commands • Okay (release) • Wait • Leave it • Drop it • Tricks • -Beg • High Five • Rollover • Spin • Smile
Training methods • Reward Method (Treats) • Reward when dog performs desired command, reduce and remove reward as dog learns • Training Collars • Corrects bad behavior • Handler has remote that can make collar beep to warn dog • If dog doesn’t obey, handler can give dog small electric shock • Used to train hunting/retrieving dogs
Dogs with Jobs • Seeing-eye (Guide) Dogs • Help blind or visually impaired people navigate the world around them • Selective obedience- they decide if what they’re being told to do is safe! (Will disobey if it puts owner in danger) • Don’t distract it- Human nature to praise guide dogs since we are impressed, but it breaks their concentration and ability to pay attention to handler • When off-duty, just like another pet! • Dogs are trained at Guide Dog Schools • Puppies are fostered and brought up to be well-behaved by volunteers for 1 year, experience variety of people and situations
Guide dogs must be intelligent, have a good memory, willing, able to concentrate, healthy • If they show the slightest bit of aggressiveness, nervousness or extreme reactions to other animals, they will not go on in their training • Only 72% of dogs that enter this training make it to graduation • Most popular breeds: Golden Retrievers, Labs, German Shepherds • Other types of service dogs, like those for handicap, diabetic, deaf etc.
Rescue Dogs • “Play drive” motivates these dogs to do their job • Do not work solely on scent, dogs have superior hearing and night vision than humans • Any dog can be a search and rescue dog, any breed, even mutts! • Most common are German Shepherds, Labs, Border Collies, Bloodhounds • 2 types: tracking/trailing and air-scent • Common commands: Find it, Over, Tunnel,Leave it, Show me • While Search and Rescue is a serious matter, it is a game to the dogs!
Drug/Bomb Dogs • Dogs have 20-40 percent more odor receptors than humans • To avoid creating a scene bomb dogs are trained to sit when they smell a bomb • German Shepherds, German Malinois, Vizsla and Labs are most commonly used as bomb dogs • Training begins between 1-3 years old, when dogs are playful and more willing to learn • Dogs are also being used to sniff out cancer- they can detect certain substances found in urine and breathe.
Agility • Agility- when a handler leads a dog through an obstacle course. • Precision and speed are two most important factors. • Obedience is critical • Dogs are separated into different divisions based on height. • 5 most popular breeds: Border Collie, Australian Shepherd, Shetland Sheepdog, Jack Russell Terrier, Pembroke Welsh Corgi