coyote canis latrans l.
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Coyote (Canis latrans) Largest of “small canids” (9–20 kg) tail posture dog vs. coyote highly variable behavior & diets most vocal canid Coyote solitary or cooperative hunters mates may stay together for multiple years 1-19 pups (avg.=6) in dens female pups may stay with parents

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coyote canis latrans
Coyote(Canis latrans)
  • Largest of “small canids” (9–20 kg)
  • tail posture dog vs. coyote
  • highly variable behavior & diets
  • most vocal canid
coyote
Coyote
  • solitary or cooperative hunters
  • mates may stay together for multiple years
  • 1-19 pups (avg.=6) in dens
  • female pups may stay with parents
  • create “scent posts”
slide3

Native to Americas

  • Change distribution over past 200 years
  • Historic wolf control  # of coyotes
  • Potential effects on #s of snowshoe hares & bobcats
red fox vulpes vulpes
Red Fox(Vulpes vulpes)
  • Largest fox (3-10 kg)
  • Solitary, partly territorial
  • HR size varies with habitat
  • Nocturnal or crepuscular
slide5

Very adaptable – “urban foxes”

  • Possibly not native to NA ??
slide7

Monogamous

  • Family dens + burrows
  • 1-13 pups (avg. = 5)
  • Sexually mature ~ 10 months
color variations
Color Variations

“Silver fox” – prized by furriers

“Cross fox”

arctic fox alopex lagopus
Arctic Fox(Alopex lagopus)
  • Smaller than red fox (3-8 kg)
  • Adapted to arctic
  • Varied diet (small mammals, eggs, carrion from polar bears)
slide10

Only in far north of NA

  • Tundra in summer & ocean ice in winter
  • Shorter dark pelage in summer
  • Blue & white color phases
arctic fox alopex lagopus11
Arctic Fox(Alopex lagopus)

Circumpolar distribution

arctic fox
Arctic Fox
  • monogamous
  • 2 litters of 5-8 pups
  • large, complex dens
  • flexible social system – family territories
  • may form communal bands that scavenge together
grey fox urocyon cinereoargenteus
Grey Fox(Urocyon cinereoargenteus)
  • smaller than red fox (3-7 kg)
  • more omnivorous
  • tree climbers
  • woodlands & rocky areas (less agriculture than red fox)
grey fox
Grey Fox
  • Southern & Midwestern states
  • timing of breeding varies w/latitude
  • monogamous family units
  • 1-7 pups (avg.=4)
swift fox vulpes velox
Swift Fox(Vulpes velox)
  • Smallest fox in NA (1-3kg)
  • Occurs in south-central US
  • Prairie grasslands & deserts
  • speeds of 50 mph
swift fox vulpes velox18
Swift Fox(Vulpes velox)
  • 2-6 pups per litter
  • nocturnal
  • Endangered
  • #s declined in past 50 years
  • Threats: predator & rodent control, habitat change
kit fox vulpes macrotis
Kit Fox(Vulpes macrotis)
  • Size of Swift fox (1-3 kg)
  • Nocturnal – days in burrows
  • Use multiple dens – switch frequently
  • Diet: small mammals, birds, insects, some fruit
gray wolf canis lupus
Gray Wolf(Canis lupus)
  • largest canid (23-80 kg)
  • color variation (white – black)
  • diet varies geographically
  • habitats: tundra, forest, prairie, desert, etc.
gray wolf
Gray Wolf
  • territorial – aggressive defense by pack
  • females sexually mature ~ 2 yr, males ~ 3 yr
  • gestation ~ 2 mo.
  • altricial pups born in den – 8 to10 wks
slide22

1973 -- lower 48 listed “Endangered” (except MN = “Threatened”)

  • 2003 -- 3 DPSs
  • Eastern - Threatened
  • Western - Threatened
  • Southwestern - Endangered
red wolf canis rufus
Red Wolf (Canis rufus)
  • Size: between coyote & gray wolf
  • (20-40 kg)
  • Color: brown, tan & black
  • Red or tawny on muzzle, back of ears & legs
  • Longer, pointed ears & longer legs; slender build; shorter fur (vs. gray wolf)
red wolf
Red Wolf

Habitat: southeastern deciduous & coniferous forests

Diet: small mammals (raccoons, rodents, rabbits, muskrats, etc.) & white-tailed deer

Social structure: packs = extended families & defended territories

red wolf26
Red Wolf
  • 1967 listed as Endangered under ESA
  • 1970: < 100 survive in TX & LO
  • Captive breeding & reintroduction
mexican gray wolf canis lupus baileyi
Mexican Gray Wolf(Canis lupus baileyi)
  • genetically distinct subspecies
  • Size: < northern gray wolf (~ red wolf, 20-36 kg)
  • Habitat: SW deserts; arid grasslands & shrublands

Diet: elk, deer, small mammals

slide28

extinct in native habitat by 1950s

  • 1998: 11 wolves reintroduced to AZ & NM