coyote canis latrans l.
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Coyote (Canis latrans)

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Coyote (Canis latrans) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Coyote (Canis latrans)

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  1. Coyote(Canis latrans) • Largest of “small canids” (9–20 kg) • tail posture dog vs. coyote • highly variable behavior & diets • most vocal canid

  2. Coyote • solitary or cooperative hunters • mates may stay together for multiple years • 1-19 pups (avg.=6) in dens • female pups may stay with parents • create “scent posts”

  3. Native to Americas • Change distribution over past 200 years • Historic wolf control  # of coyotes • Potential effects on #s of snowshoe hares & bobcats

  4. Red Fox(Vulpes vulpes) • Largest fox (3-10 kg) • Solitary, partly territorial • HR size varies with habitat • Nocturnal or crepuscular

  5. Very adaptable – “urban foxes” • Possibly not native to NA ??

  6. Red Fox(Vulpes vulpes)

  7. Monogamous • Family dens + burrows • 1-13 pups (avg. = 5) • Sexually mature ~ 10 months

  8. Color Variations “Silver fox” – prized by furriers “Cross fox”

  9. Arctic Fox(Alopex lagopus) • Smaller than red fox (3-8 kg) • Adapted to arctic • Varied diet (small mammals, eggs, carrion from polar bears)

  10. Only in far north of NA • Tundra in summer & ocean ice in winter • Shorter dark pelage in summer • Blue & white color phases

  11. Arctic Fox(Alopex lagopus) Circumpolar distribution

  12. Arctic Fox • monogamous • 2 litters of 5-8 pups • large, complex dens • flexible social system – family territories • may form communal bands that scavenge together

  13. Grey Fox(Urocyon cinereoargenteus) • smaller than red fox (3-7 kg) • more omnivorous • tree climbers • woodlands & rocky areas (less agriculture than red fox)

  14. Grey Fox • Southern & Midwestern states • timing of breeding varies w/latitude • monogamous family units • 1-7 pups (avg.=4)

  15. Swift Fox(Vulpes velox) • Smallest fox in NA (1-3kg) • Occurs in south-central US • Prairie grasslands & deserts • speeds of 50 mph

  16. Swift Fox(Vulpes velox) • 2-6 pups per litter • nocturnal • Endangered • #s declined in past 50 years • Threats: predator & rodent control, habitat change

  17. Kit Fox(Vulpes macrotis) • Size of Swift fox (1-3 kg) • Nocturnal – days in burrows • Use multiple dens – switch frequently • Diet: small mammals, birds, insects, some fruit

  18. Gray Wolf(Canis lupus) • largest canid (23-80 kg) • color variation (white – black) • diet varies geographically • habitats: tundra, forest, prairie, desert, etc.

  19. Gray Wolf • territorial – aggressive defense by pack • females sexually mature ~ 2 yr, males ~ 3 yr • gestation ~ 2 mo. • altricial pups born in den – 8 to10 wks

  20. 1973 -- lower 48 listed “Endangered” (except MN = “Threatened”) • 2003 -- 3 DPSs • Eastern - Threatened • Western - Threatened • Southwestern - Endangered

  21. Red Wolf (Canis rufus) • Size: between coyote & gray wolf • (20-40 kg) • Color: brown, tan & black • Red or tawny on muzzle, back of ears & legs • Longer, pointed ears & longer legs; slender build; shorter fur (vs. gray wolf)

  22. Red Wolf Habitat: southeastern deciduous & coniferous forests Diet: small mammals (raccoons, rodents, rabbits, muskrats, etc.) & white-tailed deer Social structure: packs = extended families & defended territories

  23. Red Wolf • 1967 listed as Endangered under ESA • 1970: < 100 survive in TX & LO • Captive breeding & reintroduction

  24. Mexican Gray Wolf(Canis lupus baileyi) • genetically distinct subspecies • Size: < northern gray wolf (~ red wolf, 20-36 kg) • Habitat: SW deserts; arid grasslands & shrublands Diet: elk, deer, small mammals

  25. extinct in native habitat by 1950s • 1998: 11 wolves reintroduced to AZ & NM