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Chapter 22 Cities and Sustainability. Core Case Study: The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil. Ecocity , green city : Curitiba, Brazil Bus system: cars banned in certain areas Pedestrian walkways, bike routes Only high rise building allowed near major bus routes

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chapter 22 cities and sustainability
Chapter 22

Cities and Sustainability

core case study the ecocity concept in curitiba brazil
Core Case Study: The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil
  • Ecocity, green city: Curitiba, Brazil
  • Bus system:
    • cars banned in certain areas
      • Pedestrian walkways, bike routes
    • Only high rise building allowed near major bus routes
      • Bottom 2 floors to stores
  • industrial parks
    • Outside of town
  • Recycling of materials
    • 70% paper recycled, 60% metal, glass, plastic
  • Helping the poor
    • Free medical, dental, childcare, job training, feeding centers
    • Build-it yourself program
  • New challenges
    • Increased pressures from population growth

City center







Fig. 22-1b, p. 586

half of the world s people live in urban areas 1
Half of the World’s People Live in Urban Areas (1)
  • Urbanization
    • Creation and growth of urban and suburban areas
    • Measured by percentage of people who live in such areas
  • Urban growth
    • Rate of increase of urban populations
    • Two ways:
      • Natural increase: births>deaths
      • Immigration from rural areas
        • Pushed
        • Pulled
half of the world s people live in urban areas 2
Half of the World’s People Live in Urban Areas (2)
  • Push factors
    • Poverty
    • Lack of land to grow food
    • Declining labor market in agriculture
    • War, famine, conflicts
  • Pull factors
    • Jobs, food, housing
    • Education
    • Health care
half of the world s people live in urban areas 3
Half of the World’s People Live in Urban Areas (3)
  • Four major trends
    • Proportion of global population living in urban areas is increasing
    • Number and size of urban areas is mushrooming
      • Megacities (>10 million) – 18 currently
      • Hypercities (>20 million) - Tokyo
    • Urban growth slower in developed countries
    • Poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized; mostly in less-developed countries
      • Slums, shantytowns
urban population growth
Urban Population Growth

Fig. 22-3, p. 588






Urban population



Less-developed countries


More-developed countries


1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020



Fig. 22-3, p. 588

global outlook satellite image of major urban areas throughout the world
Global Outlook: Satellite Image of Major Urban Areas Throughout the World

Fig. 22-4, p. 589



18.6 million

Hong Kong

15.8 million


22 million


17 million


15 million


32 million


12.9 million

Los Angeles

15.2 million

New York

19.7 million


14.5 million


17.4 million


11.8 million


20.6 million

Mexico City

20.5 million


13.4 million


16.3 million

Kolkata (Calcutta)

15.1 million

Rio de Janeiro

12 million


12 million

Mumbai (Bombay)

19.2 million

São Paulo

18.9 million


18.9 million


13 million

Buenos Aires

13.1 million

Fig. 22-4, p. 589

typical daily traffic jam of people carts and other vehicles in delhi india
Typical Daily Traffic Jam of People, Carts, and Other Vehicles in Delhi, India

Fig. 22-5, p. 589

case study urbanization in the united states 1
Case Study: Urbanization in the United States (1)
  • Four phases between 1800 and 2008
    • Migration from rural areas to large central cities
      • ¾ of American population live in cities
    • Migration from large central cities to suburbs and smaller cities
      • ½ of American population live in suburbs
    • Migration from North and East to South and West
    • Migration from cities and suburbs to developed areas outside the suburbs = exurbs
    • Urbanization went from 5% to 79%
case study urbanization in the united states 2
Case Study: Urbanization in the United States (2)
  • Environmental problems decreasing
    • Better working and housing
    • Better water and sanitation
    • Better health care
  • Older cities
    • Deteriorating services
    • Aging infrastructures
    • U.S. $2.2 trillion behind in infrastructure maintenance
urban sprawl gobbles up the countryside 1
Urban Sprawl Gobbles Up the Countryside (1)
  • Urban sprawl
    • Low-density development at edges of cities/towns
  • Contributing factors to urban sprawl in the U.S.
    • Ample land
    • Low-cost gasoline; highways
    • Tax laws encouraged home ownership
    • State and local zoning laws
    • Multiple political jurisdictions: poor urban planning
urban sprawl gobbles up the countryside 2
Urban Sprawl Gobbles Up the Countryside (2)
  • Megalopolis
    • Bowash: decrease amount of space between Boston, New York and Washington DC
  • Caused many environmental and economic problems
    • Driving needed
    • Decreased energy efficiency
    • Degraded land
urban sprawl in and around the u s city of las vegas nevada from 1973 to 2000
Urban Sprawl in and around the U.S. City of Las Vegas, Nevada, from 1973 to 2000

Fig. 22-7, p. 591


Natural Capital Degradation

Urban Sprawl

Land and Biodiversity


Energy, Air, and Climate

Economic Effects

Loss of cropland

Increased use

and pollution of

surface water and groundwater

Increased energy use and waste

Decline of downtown business districts

Loss and fragmentation

of forests, grasslands, wetlands, and wildlife habitat

Increased emissions of carbon dioxide and other air pollutants

More unemployment

in central cities

Increased runoff

and flooding

Fig. 22-8, p. 592

urbanization has advantages 1
Urbanization Has Advantages (1)
  • Centers of:
    • Economic development
    • Innovation
    • Education
    • Technological advances
    • Jobs
    • Industry, commerce, transportation
urbanization has advantages 2
Urbanization Has Advantages (2)
  • Urban residents tend to have
    • Longer lives
    • Lower infant mortality
    • Better medical care
    • Better social services
    • More recycling programs
  • Concentrating people in cities can help preserve biodiversity in rural areas
urbanization has disadvantages 1
Urbanization Has Disadvantages (1)
  • Huge ecological footprints
  • Lack vegetation
  • Water problems
  • Concentrate pollution and health problems
  • Excessive noise
  • Altered climate and experience light pollution
    • Urban heat island
    • Light pollution
      • Turtles, bird migration patterns
natural capital degradation urban areas rarely are sustainable systems
Natural Capital Degradation: Urban Areas Rarely Are Sustainable Systems

Fig. 22-9, p. 594





Solid wastes

Waste heat


Air pollutants


Water pollutants

Raw materials

Greenhouse gases

Manufactured goods

Manufactured goods







Fig. 22-9, p. 594


Permanent damage begins after 8-hour exposure


Noise Levels (in dbA)

















Normal breathing

Quiet rural area


Vacuum cleaner

Lawn mower

Rock music


at loud level

Boom cars


Quiet room

Normal conversation

Average factory

Chain saw

Thunderclap (nearby)

Air raidsiren


Fig. 22-10, p. 595

life is a desperate struggle for the urban poor in less developed countries
Life Is a Desperate Struggle for the Urban Poor in Less-Developed Countries
  • Slums
  • Squatter settlements/shantytowns
  • Terrible living conditions
    • Lack basic water and sanitation
    • High levels of pollution
  • What can governments do to help?
    • Improve education, health care, family planning, encourage small town investments
    • Clean water & sanitation, transportation
case study mexico city
Case Study: Mexico City
  • Urban area in crisis
    • Severe air pollution
    • Water pollution
    • 50% unemployment
    • Deafening noise
    • Overcrowding
    • Traffic congestion
    • Inadequate public transportation
    • 1/3 live in slums (barrios)or squatter settlements
  • What progress is being made?
    • Banned cars in central zone, pollution controls on cars
    • Unleaded gasoline
    • Added greenspace, waste processing centers
cities can grow outward or upward
Cities Can Grow Outward or Upward
  • Compact cities
    • Hong Kong, China
    • Tokyo, Japan
    • Mass transit
  • Dispersed cities
    • U.S. and Canada
    • Car-centered cities
motor vehicles have advantages and disadvantages 1
Motor Vehicles Have Advantages and Disadvantages (1)
  • Advantages
    • Mobility and convenience
    • Jobs in
      • Production and repair of vehicles
      • Supplying fuel
      • Building roads
    • Status symbol
  • Disadvantages
    • Accidents: 1.2 million per year, 15 million injured
    • Kill 50 million animals per year
    • Largest source of outdoor air pollution
    • Helped create urban sprawl
    • Traffic congestion
los angeles freeways
Los Angeles Freeways

Fig. 22-13, p. 599

reducing automobile use is not easy but it can be done 1
Reducing Automobile Use Is Not Easy, but It Can Be Done (1)
  • Full-cost pricing: high gasoline taxes
    • Educate consumers first
    • Use funds for mass transit
    • Opposition from car owners and industry
    • Lack of good public transit is a problem
  • Rapid mass transit
    • Difficult to pass in the United States
    • Strong public opposition
    • Dispersed nature of the U.S.
reducing automobile use is not easy but it can be done 2
Reducing Automobile Use Is Not Easy, but It Can Be Done (2)
  • Raise parking fees
  • Tolls on roads, tunnels, and bridges into major cities
  • Charge a fee to drive into a major city
  • Car-sharing
some cities are promoting alternatives to car ownership
Some Cities Are Promoting Alternatives to Car Ownership
  • Bicycles
  • Heavy-rail systems
  • Light-rail systems
  • Buses
  • Rapid-rail system between urban areas
trade offs bicycles
Trade-Offs: Bicycles

Fig. 22-14, p. 601






Are quiet and non-polluting

Provide little protection in an accident

Take few resources to make

Provide no protection from bad weather

Burn no fossil fuels

Are impractical for long trips

Require little parking space

Secure bike parking not yet widespread

Fig. 22-14, p. 601



Mass Transit Rail



Uses less energy and produces less air pollution than cars do

Expensive to build and maintain

Cost-effective only along a densely populated corridor

Use less land than roads and parking lots use

Causes fewer injuries and deaths than cars

Commits riders to transportation schedules

Fig. 22-15, p. 601

trade offs buses
Trade-Offs: Buses

Fig. 22-16, p. 601






Reduce car use and air pollution

Can lose money because they require affordable fares

Can get caught in traffic and add to noise and pollution

Can be rerouted as needed

Commit riders to transportation schedules

Cheaper than heavy-rail system

Fig. 22-16, p. 601

trade offs rapid rail
Trade-Offs: Rapid Rail

Fig. 22-17, p. 602



Rapid Rail



Much more energy efficient per rider than cars and planes are

Costly to run and maintain

Causes noise and vibration for nearby residents

Less air pollution than cars and planes

Can reduce need for air travel,

cars, roads, and parking areas

Adds some risk

of collision at car crossings

Fig. 22-17, p. 602

potential routes for high speed bullet trains in the u s and parts of canada
Potential Routes for High-Speed Bullet Trains in the U.S. and Parts of Canada

Fig. 22-18, p. 602

conventional land use planning
Conventional Land-Use Planning
  • Land-use planning
    • Encourages future population growth
    • Encourages economic development
    • Revenues: property taxes
      • 90% of local government revenue in the U.S.
    • Environmental and social consequences
  • Zoning
    • Problems and potential benefits
    • Mixed-use zoning
smart growth works 1
Smart Growth Works (1)
  • Smart growth
    • Reduces dependence on cars
    • Controls and directs sprawl
    • Cuts wasteful resource
    • Uses zoning laws to channel growth


Smart Growth Tools

Limits and Regulations


Preserve open space

Buy new open space

Limit building permits

Prohibit certain types

of development

Draw urban growth boundaries


Create greenbelts around cities

Tax land, not buildings

Zoning Promote mixed use of housing and small businesses

Tax land on value of actual use instead of on highest value as developed land

Tax Breaks

Concentrate development along mass transportation routes

For owners agreeing not to allow certain types of development

Planning Ecological

land-use planning

For cleaning up and developing abandoned urban sites

Revitalization and New Growth


impact analysis

Revitalize existing towns and cities

Build well-planned new towns and villages within cities

Integrated regional planning

Fig. 22-19, p. 604

case study smart growth in portland oregon
Case Study: Smart Growth in Portland, Oregon
  • Since 1975
    • Population grew 50%
    • Urban area expanded 2%
    • Efficient light-rail and bus system
    • Abundant green space and parks
    • Clustered, mixed-use neighborhoods
    • Air pollution reduced 86%
  • Greenest city in the United States
preserving and using open space
Preserving and Using Open Space
  • Urban growth boundary
    • U.S. states: Washington, Oregon, and Tennessee
  • Municipal parks
    • U.S. cities: New York City and San Francisco
  • Greenbelts
    • Canadian cities: Vancouver and Toronto
    • Western European cities
new urbanism is growing
New Urbanism Is Growing
  • Conventional housing development
  • Cluster development
  • New urbanism, old villageism
    • Walkability
    • Mixed-use and diversity
    • Quality urban design
    • Environmental sustainability
    • Smart transportation


Undeveloped land


Fig. 22-21a, p. 606


Typical housing development

Fig. 22-21b, p. 606



Cluster housing development




Fig. 22-21c, p. 606

case study new urban village of vauban
Case Study: New Urban Village of Vauban
  • Suburb of Freiburg, Germany
  • Car use heavily discouraged with high parking fees = $40,000 for a parking space
  • All homes within walking distance of
    • Trains and other public transit
    • Stores, banks, restaurants, schools
  • Much use of renewable energy
the ecocity concept cities for people not cars
The Ecocity Concept: Cities for People Not Cars
  • Ecocities or green cities
    • Build and redesign for people
    • Use renewable energy resources
    • Recycle and purify water
    • Use energy and matter resources efficiently
    • Prevent pollution and reduce waste
    • Recycle, reuse and compost municipal waste
    • Protect and support biodiversity
    • Urban gardens; farmers markets
    • Zoning and other tools for sustainability
science focus urban indoor farming
Science Focus: Urban Indoor Farming
  • Rooftop greenhouses
    • Sun Works: designs energy-efficient greenhouses
  • Hydroponic gardens
  • Skyscraper farms
  • Ecological advantages and disadvantages
the ecovillage movement is growing
The Ecovillage Movement Is Growing
  • Ecovillage movement
    • Eco-hoods
  • 1993: ecovillage in Los Angeles, CA, U.S.
    • What is making it work?
  • Other ecovillages
    • Success stories
case study a living building
Case Study: A Living Building
  • Living Building
    • Designed to fit in with local climate, vegetation, other characteristics
    • Energy met solely by renewable resources
    • Capture, treat, reuse all water
    • Highly energy efficient
    • Esthetically pleasing