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Mobilizing for Defense

Mobilizing for Defense

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Mobilizing for Defense

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  1. Mobilizing for Defense Mr. White’s US 2 History

  2. Main Idea, Big Questions, and Objectives • Main Idea: In order to win World War II, the United States government took direct control over industry, the economy, and many aspects of daily life. This was known as mobilization. • Big question: What would you be willing to sacrifice or do to protect your country? • After this section, we should be able to: • Describe the sacrifices of the American people during the war effort • Examine the impact of racism on the American war effort and society

  3. Americans Join the War Effort • Immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor, men began showing up to volunteer • Over 5 million would volunteer over the course of the war • Over 10 million others would be drafted using the Selective Service Act

  4. You’re in the army now… • After volunteering or being drafted, new recruits would enter basic training • Goal of basic training was to take an untrained recruit and make them into a soldier • Men would learn how to use their weapons, hand-to-hand combat, and other knowledge they would need in combat

  5. Women Join The Effort • Women couldn’t serve in combat roles, but could help in other ways • US0 – held dances, entertainment, social gatherings, showed movies • WAC – Women’s Army Corps; these women filled non-combat jobs such as office workers, etc., to free up men who could be in combat

  6. Discrimination in Recruiting • Black troops – Over 1 million served, but weren’t allowed to serve in combat roles until last year of the war • Over 300,000 Mexican Americans joined armed forces • Asian Americans, including many Japanese Americans, volunteered as well • Over 25,000 Native Americans served, some of whom were “code-talkers” that were used to keep Japanese from breaking code

  7. Industry Shifts to War Production • Industries quickly shifted over to war production after Pearl Harbor • Automobile production completely stopped; all auto factories turned to war production • Factories were putting out as many as one bomber every hour; some shipyards were putting out one cargo ship every four days

  8. Women in the Workforce • Of the 18 million people employed in defense industries by the end of the war, over 6 million were women • At first, people were reluctant to hire women; didn’t think they could handle factory work • However, women became widely sought after, since they worked for less money than men

  9. Scientists and the Manhattan Project • President Roosevelt created the Office of Scientific Research and Development to research new technologies • Radar • Sonar • Penicillin • Most significant achievement was developing the atomic bomb • Albert Einstein helped design this weapon that would help win the war

  10. The Federal Government Takes Control • Fewer consumer products were available as the war went on; most production was for the war • Prices started to creep upwards because of low supply • Federal government stepped in; froze prices on most consumer goods

  11. War Bonds • Americans were encouraged to purchase war bonds • War bonds were loans bought by citizens • Government got money to support the war, and Americans would get paid back that money with interest after the war

  12. War Goods Drives • War Production Board planned drives for many goods needed in the war – scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags, and cooking fat • Children were sent out scouring for these materials

  13. Rationing • The federal government began to restrict the amounts of certain goods that people could buy • Ration books were issued, with coupons that allowed families to buy certain goods, but limited how much they could buy • Meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, and gasoline were rationed • Gas rationing was particularly hard on some people • This was used to free up materials for the war effort

  14. Main Idea, Big Questions, and Objectives • Main Idea: In order to win World War II, the United States government took direct control over industry, the economy, and many aspects of daily life. This was known as mobilization. • Big question: What would you be willing to sacrifice or do to protect your country? • After this section, we should be able to: • Describe the sacrifices of the American people during the war effort • Examine the impact of racism on the American war effort and society

  15. Wrap-up • So… • One of the sacrifices that the American people made to assist in the war effort was… • One of the ways that racism impacted the war effort for the United States was…