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Mobilizing for Defense. Mr. White’s US 2 History. Main Idea, Big Questions, and Objectives. Main Idea: In order to win World War II, the United States government took direct control over industry, the economy, and many aspects of daily life. This was known as mobilization .

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mobilizing for defense

Mobilizing for Defense

Mr. White’s US 2 History

main idea big questions and objectives
Main Idea, Big Questions, and Objectives
  • Main Idea: In order to win World War II, the United States government took direct control over industry, the economy, and many aspects of daily life. This was known as mobilization.
  • Big question: What would you be willing to sacrifice or do to protect your country?
  • After this section, we should be able to:
    • Describe the sacrifices of the American people during the war effort
    • Examine the impact of racism on the American war effort and society
americans join the war effort
Americans Join the War Effort
  • Immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor, men began showing up to volunteer
  • Over 5 million would volunteer over the course of the war
  • Over 10 million others would be drafted using the Selective Service Act
you re in the army now
You’re in the army now…
  • After volunteering or being drafted, new recruits would enter basic training
  • Goal of basic training was to take an untrained recruit and make them into a soldier
  • Men would learn how to use their weapons, hand-to-hand combat, and other knowledge they would need in combat
women join the effort
Women Join The Effort
  • Women couldn’t serve in combat roles, but could help in other ways
  • US0 – held dances, entertainment, social gatherings, showed movies
  • WAC – Women’s Army Corps; these women filled non-combat jobs such as office workers, etc., to free up men who could be in combat
discrimination in recruiting
Discrimination in Recruiting
  • Black troops – Over 1 million served, but weren’t allowed to serve in combat roles until last year of the war
  • Over 300,000 Mexican Americans joined armed forces
  • Asian Americans, including many Japanese Americans, volunteered as well
  • Over 25,000 Native Americans served, some of whom were “code-talkers” that were used to keep Japanese from breaking code
industry shifts to war production
Industry Shifts to War Production
  • Industries quickly shifted over to war production after Pearl Harbor
  • Automobile production completely stopped; all auto factories turned to war production
  • Factories were putting out as many as one bomber every hour; some shipyards were putting out one cargo ship every four days
women in the workforce
Women in the Workforce
  • Of the 18 million people employed in defense industries by the end of the war, over 6 million were women
  • At first, people were reluctant to hire women; didn’t think they could handle factory work
  • However, women became widely sought after, since they worked for less money than men
scientists and the manhattan project
Scientists and the Manhattan Project
  • President Roosevelt created the Office of Scientific Research and Development to research new technologies
    • Radar
    • Sonar
    • Penicillin
  • Most significant achievement was developing the atomic bomb
  • Albert Einstein helped design this weapon that would help win the war
the federal government takes control
The Federal Government Takes Control
  • Fewer consumer products were available as the war went on; most production was for the war
  • Prices started to creep upwards because of low supply
  • Federal government stepped in; froze prices on most consumer goods
war bonds
War Bonds
  • Americans were encouraged to purchase war bonds
  • War bonds were loans bought by citizens
  • Government got money to support the war, and Americans would get paid back that money with interest after the war
war goods drives
War Goods Drives
  • War Production Board planned drives for many goods needed in the war – scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags, and cooking fat
  • Children were sent out scouring for these materials
rationing
Rationing
  • The federal government began to restrict the amounts of certain goods that people could buy
  • Ration books were issued, with coupons that allowed families to buy certain goods, but limited how much they could buy
  • Meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, and gasoline were rationed
  • Gas rationing was particularly hard on some people
  • This was used to free up materials for the war effort
main idea big questions and objectives14
Main Idea, Big Questions, and Objectives
  • Main Idea: In order to win World War II, the United States government took direct control over industry, the economy, and many aspects of daily life. This was known as mobilization.
  • Big question: What would you be willing to sacrifice or do to protect your country?
  • After this section, we should be able to:
    • Describe the sacrifices of the American people during the war effort
    • Examine the impact of racism on the American war effort and society
wrap up
Wrap-up
  • So…
    • One of the sacrifices that the American people made to assist in the war effort was…
    • One of the ways that racism impacted the war effort for the United States was…