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It is not that participants forget the rules. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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It is not that participants forget the rules. Indeed, children often call out the correct higher-order rule on trials in the mixed condition (e.g., “same,” “opposite,” “opposite,” “same”) even as they are making errors.

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slide1

It is not that participants forget the rules.

Indeed, children often call out the correct higher-order rule on trials in the mixed condition (e.g., “same,” “opposite,” “opposite,” “same”) even as they are making errors.

The problem seems to be in quickly translating the rule into the correct response when switching back & forth.

slide2

In the Incongruent condition, besides needing to hold one abstract rule in mind (“press on the side opposite the dot”), you need to inhibit the natural tendency to respond on the same side as the stimulus.

In the Mixed condition, working memory is needed to hold TWO abstract rules in mind and mentally translate same/opposite into L or R, cognitive flexibility is needed to switch between rules, and inhibition is needed on incongruent trials and switch trials.

slide3

It is SWITCHING –

re-setting one’s attentional focus, re-orienting one’s mindset --

that is most difficult & when DL-PFC is most critically required.

increased activation of dorsolateral pfc area 46 9 dots mixed minus dots congruent

R

L

p<.01

Talairach:

(34, 45,25)

Talairach:

(-40, 45,28)

p<.001

p<.0001

Increased Activation of Dorsolateral PFC (Area 46/9)Dots-Mixed minus Dots-Congruent
jk slice 13
JK slice 13

Dots-Mixed

minus

Dots-Congruent

10-year-olds

slide6

Dots Conditions: Accuracy

Congruent

Incongruent

Mixed

100

90

80

Percent Correct

70

60

50

4

5

6

6

7

8

9

10

11

13

26

Stimuli presented for 2500 ms Stimuli presented for 750 ms

Age in Years

Davidson et al. (2006). Neuropsychologia, 44, 2037 - 2078

slide7
Adults have little difficulty exercising inhibition in steady-state in single-task blocks,

but children of all ages demonstrated a cost in doing so, albeit a much lesser cost than intermittently exercising that inhibition.

slide8
Increasing demands on inhibition are more difficult for children (ages 4-9 years) than increasing demands on how much information they must hold in mind (2 to 6 items).

The opposite is true for young adults:

increasing memory load is disproportionately more difficult for adults than increasing inhibitory demands.

Adults may not appreciate how inordinately difficult inhibition is for young children because it is less taxing for us.

slide9

Development from 4-13 Years of Cognitive Control and Executive Functions:

Evidence from Manipulations of Memory Load, Inhibition, and Task Switching

Matthew Davidson

Loren Cruess Anderson

Dima Amso

& Adele Diamond

published in Neuropsychologia

vol 44, pages 2037 - 2078