Emphasizing Process versus Product in Writing Classes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Brecca Hoffman (brecca-hoffman@uiowa.edu) Craig Dresser (craig-dresser@uiowa.edu) University of Iowa Intensive English Program Emphasizing Process versus Product in Writing Classes

  2. Process-oriented writing

  3. Process-oriented writing

  4. Extending the process • PROBLEM: • Working with only full drafts (versions of the paper that include all of the parts) can make the process difficult and confusing for students and teachers

  5. The scope of the assignment • Gives students too many things to consider all at once • Creates large amounts of revision • Becomes difficult for students to monitor and control all weaknesses simultaneously

  6. Dealing with feedback Teacher’s perspective Student’s perspective Can be confusing and disheartening to the student • Creates a large task for the teacher to read and comment on full drafts

  7. Solution • Break the process of writing into discrete parts • “Builds” the essay from the ground up • Focuses on particular skills in small manageable assignments • Further emphasizes the “process” aspect of writing within the essay

  8. Effects

  9. Strategies: Essay basics

  10. Essay basics • Creating an outline (or similar plan) is critical • We ask our students to write parts of their essays without having written other parts, so it is necessary that they develop a plan first

  11. Divide and conquer • Have students choose one part of the body to write (topic sentence, paragraph, section, etc.) • Focus on an important writing skill as the students create that part • Provide specific instruction about how to achieve that skill before writing

  12. Divide and conquer • Have students workshop each other’s writing using a guiding worksheet • Handout (A): Body Paragraph Workshop • Have students revise their writing and offer teacher feedback

  13. Divide and conquer

  14. Divide and conquer

  15. Divide and conquer • Have students workshop a full draft, looking for any of the skills that you have covered

  16. Possible additional steps • Reflection writing • Handout (B): Peer-Review Reflection • Reduced teacher feedback • Specialized rubrics for the parts

  17. Skills we focus on • Paragraph structure • Cohesion • Connecting paragraphs • Logical development • Unity/focus • Thesis statements • Precise vocabulary • Grammar Handout (C): Peer Review Workshop

  18. Skills we focus on Handout (C): Peer Review Workshop

  19. Strategies: Argumentative writing

  20. Argumentative writing

  21. Argumentative writing • Strategies using drafting

  22. Argumentative writing • Strategies without drafting • Use debate activities in class • Understanding the development of ideas, anticipating and responding to opposing arguments • Evaluate debate as a class • Apply skills and evaluation to personal writing

  23. Strategies: Research writing

  24. Research writing

  25. Research writing • Start with ideas • Have students write a short essay using only reason and logic • Find sources to support the ideas • Have students draft and workshop summaries, paraphrases, or quotes for their sources • Integrate sources into already existing ideas

  26. Research writing • Draft and workshop citations and works cited entries • Handout (D): Citations “Cheat Sheet”

  27. Wrap-up Benefits

  28. Benefits • The overall process for writing an essay is longer, but the work for both teacher and student on each draft is comparatively smaller • Students are not trying to produce a complete paper all at once • Students do not need to edit their own writing for all skills all at once until the end • Teachers are commenting on specific skills and leaving others for later drafts

  29. Benefits • The process emphasizes to students that they are responsible for applying the process to further parts of their writing instead of relying on the instructor to point out their mistakes • This focuses them on honing their writing skills rather than simply “fixing” errors and trying to do better next time

  30. Benefits • This process emphasizes the idea that the students must think about their writing as they are writing it, not just afterwards

  31. Benefits • This process helps the instructor and student to identify and focus on particular strengths and weaknesses for the student

  32. Benefits • This process helps to bolster the students’ confidence in their own writing • Students can more clearly see what their own strengths and weaknesses are • Students are given support throughout the writing process

  33. Thank you! • If you would like a copy of this PowerPoint presentation, please email us • brecca-hoffman@uiowa.edu • craig-dresser@uiowa.edu • A big thank you to Jane Gressang for helping us put together the PowerPoint