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Po Fat Offset Printing Ltd. Poly HK Development Ltd. Lenticular –. How It Works?. 14 February 2006. Prepared by : Randolph Wong. LENTICULAR - HOW IT WORKS!.

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How it works

Po Fat Offset Printing Ltd.

Poly HK Development Ltd.

Lenticular –

How It Works?

14 February 2006.

Prepared by : Randolph Wong

How it works


Lenticular graphics can be described as specialized images which when viewed under certain circumstances will produce 3D or animated sequences.

How it works

The technology of this product consists of twomain elements

1) A specially prepared (interlaced) image that contains data from two or more graphics which is placed in precise alignment with a lenticular lens.

2) The lenticular lens isolates, magnifies and displays the image data from each individual graphic according to the angle of observation.

Bearing these points in mind, we can begin to understand how the 3D and animated effects are achieved.

How it works

Lenticular Effects

1) Photographic 3D - continuous natural depth

2) Graphic 3D - Layering 2D images

3) Flip and Animated Effects (zoom, motion, morph etc.)

4) Combinations of the above

How it works

Lenticular Lens

1) A plastic lens consisting of an array of optical elements (lenticules)

2) When viewed from different angles, different areas under

the lens are magnified

How it works

Lenticular Lens - Characteristics

Pitch – Number of lenticules per inch (LPI)


Viewing Angle

Narrow Angle Lens - 3D

Wide Angle Lens - Flip and Animated effects.

How it works

Lenticular Lens - Stock

Available Stock and Brand

Pacur (PET)

LPI60 lpi 62 lpi 75 lpi 100 lpi 100 lpi-3D

Thickness .020” .027” .018” .014” .023”

Viewing Angle 54º 44º 49º 42º 30º

Pitch width .0167” .0161” .0133” .0099” .0101”

Size : 20” x 28” 28” x 40”

Remarks : 75 & 100 lpi - Good for pieces viewed from a shorter distance ( handheld )

100 lpi 3D - Suitable for 3D effect ( shorter distance / handheld )

60 lpi - Good for larger sizes and for pieces which will be

viewed from a greater distance ( 2 - 5 ft ).

62 lpi - Suitable for 3D effect ( 2 - 5 ft ).

How it works

Viewing Lenticular Images



Right Image

Left Image

How it works

Viewing Stereoscopic Images

More views more effective Stereoscopic Viewing

Effective Stereoscopic Viewing - each eye sees a separate view

Effective Stereoscopic Viewing - each eye sees a separate view

No Stereoscopic Viewing

(both eyes see same view)

Lens viewing angle

Lens viewing angle

How it works

Viewing Other Lenticular Effects

Two Images Flipping


View first image

View second image

Lens viewing angle

How it works

Viewing Distance is Important

Clear Separate



Preparing the interlace with accurate optical pitch for viewing distance A

How it works

Viewing Distance is Important



Viewing the prepared image from a significantly different viewing distance

How it works

Art Preparation


  • Files can be provided as layered PhotoShop files or as vector graphic files

  • such as Illustrator.

2) Should the file size exceed the limits of the storage media, separate files can

be provided, but must be of the same resolution and dimensions.

3) Files mustnot be flattened and must include alpha channels or clipping

paths to allow for re-composition of individual elements.

4) Vector graphic files must be capable of being ungrouped to allow

extraction of individual elements.

How it works

Art Preparation


  • Include all fonts associated with the project.

2) Be sure to create outlines or paths for all type. This will ensure no delays

should there be conflicts or corruption in fonts provided.

3) Preferable vector format is Adobe Illustrator. If possible, avoid Quark

documents as Quark often utilizes proxies (low resolution copies) of

images and does not allow exporting type with outlines or paths. Quark

files can incur extra creative costs if conversion to a suitable format is


How it works

Art Preparation

Effect – Flip, Motion

  • Provide client’s approved CMYK files. This will avoid a second interlacing charge for mastering unapproved art due to composition, typos, incorrect color, etc.

2) Include standard 5mm bleed and image safe areas.

3) Bitmap and/or scanned art should be of sufficient resolution for acceptable reproduction, typically 300 dpi or more.

4) Art can be supplied as a single layered file which will ensure proper alignment and registration between phases. Art can also be supplied as separate files, however, individual phase files should be of the same resolution and dimensions to avoid misregister between phases.

How it works

Art Preparation

Effect – Flip, Motion

5) It is better to run lenticules lines horizontally. Otherwise images are Fuzzy.

6) On vertical motion, you may see more than one image at the same time.

7) Animation must start out with video films or equivalent to get the next frame movement. Computer generated art is also good.

8) Don’t try to make the motion overly complex.

9) As for Flip effect, don’tuse white backgrounds as the images are more likely to ghost.

How it works











Lenticules Direction

Effect : Motion

How it works

Effect :


How it works

Art Preparation

Effect – 3D

  • The lenticules must run vertically (top to bottom) to achieve the illusion of depth. Remember this point when calculating for imposition.

2) Backgrounds must be wider than the final image to account for parallax.

Example, if the unit final size is 8” X 10”, the background should be 8 ½” X

10”. A general scale to follow is: Up to: 8” X 10”, add ½”

12” X 16”, add ¾”

24” X 24”, add 1”

This scale can be followed fairly loosely. If you are unsure of how much extra to include, remember that more is better as photo retouch work or cloning can incur additional creative costs.

How it works

Art Preparation

Effect – 3D

3) If possible backgrounds should avoid solid colors or horizontal stripes.

These two situations do not provide a depth reference to the observer.

An alternative to a solid color would be to add texture such as crumpled paper to the color.

4) If objects are cut outof the background to be layered with the background, the removed area of the background must be cloned or retouched to cover the void area.

5) Elements that overlap even slightly are good depth cues and will enhance the illusion of depth.

How it works

Art Preparation

Effect – 3D

7) Forcing perspective can enhance the illusion of depth. An example of forced perspective is where objects appear to get smaller the farther they are from the observer.

8) Logo’s or important type/copy should be composed to be on or near the


9) There's at least 12 images in 3-D.

10) The thicker the lens, the greater the depth perception.

How it works

Mid Point

In between

phase 3 & 4

Effect – Graphic 3D








How it works

1. Background

Effect :

Graphic 3D

2. Football

3. Logo B/g

6. Logos

4. Bear’s body

7. Football

5. Bear’s leg

How it works

Printing Restrictions

  • We print UV ink on back of lens, reverse image

  • (wrong reading).

2) The wider the sheet, the greater chance for distortion.

3) Along 4 edges of the sheet, allow 1” of each side for

special Corp Mark during imposition.

How it works



The dimensional plane that coincides with the surface of the printed unit. Important elements such as type or logos should be composed for this plane.


Dots per inch. Defines resolution of bitmap images.


The process of combining image data from two or more graphics in a configuration compatible with a lenticular lens array.


A single lens element in a lenticular lens array characterized by curvature along one axis only.


The apparent shift in objects/elements between right and left perspective views. The greater the parallax shift the greater the apparent depth.


A single graphic or image. A two image flip would be billed as a 2 phase animation. Twelve frames of video would be calculated as a 12 phase animation.


Use of two perspective views to achieve the perception of depth.