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The Growth of Cities

The Growth of Cities

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The Growth of Cities

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  1. The Growth of Cities “The nature of urban sprawl: the process of suburbanization” Annual Meeting Association of American Geographers. Denver, 2005

  2. How the World Works? • How Stuff Works • Wikipedia • Llrx.com

  3. The Urbanizing United States • Urbanization (Wikipedia) • The Urbanization of America (The USAonline.com) • Facts about Urbanization in the USA (World Resources Institute) • Growth of American Cities (PBS) • City Growth and the 2000 Census (Brookings Institute) • Urbanization: Building The America We Know Today • The Urbanization of the World (Fairfield University) • Urban Geography (University of Oregon) • Urban Geography (Indiana State University)

  4. Urban Sprawl • Urban Sprawl: the Big Picture (NASA) • Urban Growth in American Cities (USGS) – Twin Cities • Urban Sprawl (Wikipedia) • Urban Sprawl (National Geographic Magazine) • Stopping Sprawl (Sierra Club) • Land Use and Urban Sprawl (Clean Water Action Council) • Sprawl City (www.sprawlcity.org) • A History of Sprawl (Random History)

  5. Urban Development - Public • US Department of Housing and Urban Development • Community Planning and Development The Office of Community Planning and Development (CPD) seeks to develop viable communities by promoting integrated approaches that provide decent housing, a suitable living environment, and expand economic opportunities for low and moderate income persons. The primary means towards this end is the development of partnerships among all levels of government and the private sector, including for-profit and non-profit organizations • Economic development • Community Development • Department of Community Planning & Economic Development • Minneapolis Empowerment Zone

  6. Urban Development – “Private” (a miscellaneous bunch of corporations) • LanderGoup plans, designs, and project manages urban developments • Urban Development Corporation • The Opus Group • The Welsh Companies • Knutson Construction • Ryan Companies • Simon Property Group • Greater Frogtown Community Development Corporation • The Northeast Community Development Corporation • City Venture Corporation

  7. Decrying Sprawl • The Challenge to the Sprawl Campaign works to fight poorly planned runaway development and promotes smart growth communities that increase transportation choices, reduce air and water pollution, and protect our natural places (Sierra Club) • The American Dream. Urban Sprawl (National Geographic, 2001) • Urban Sprawl: the Big Picture (NASA) • Sprawl City (Census Bureau) • About Sprawl (About Geography) • “Urban competition for farmland will become more intense. Agriculture will have a harder time competing against it. Sprawl will get worse. Fewer Americans will be able to enjoy the countryside. Their quality of life will decline, and the nation's agricultural security will continue to diminish.” (American Farmland Trust, 2001)

  8. How to stop sprawl • Stopping Sprawl (Sierra Club) • Stopping Suburban Sprawl (The Preservation Institute) • Stopping Sprawl, Growing Greener (The New Jersey Cooperator) • Stopping Sprawl (the Chesapeake Foundation) • MinnPost - Sprawl: It isn't new -- and it isn't all bad • When the sprawl stopped (Star Tribune) • From sprawl to sustainability: smart growth, new urbanism

  9. How to change development • The New Urbanism • Congress for New Urbanism • Prospect Park and the “New Urbanism” • The New Suburb? (National Geographic) • Sustainable Cities Net • SustainableCitiesCollective • Center for Sustainable Urban Development (Columbia University) • Green Buildings (EPA) • Green Building Option Checklist (Minneapolis)

  10. The Nature of Urban Sprawl – The Process of Suburbanization • Increased in-migration into urban areas • Increased density - congestion • Horizontally • Vertically • Horizontal Spread - sprawl

  11. Some Frame of Reference

  12. The land surface comprises a mosaic of spatial units • A. Jurisdictions   • B. Real property - land, subsurface, water, air, wildlife  (private spaces) • Organized spatially, horizontally & vertically, and temporally  • Historically • Increasing number  of spaces • Decreasing size of spaces • Fragmentation of the land surface 

  13. The Nature of Landscape Goods Service Artifacts Legislation Regulation Judicial Opinions Organization of Space Organization of Behavior Law Public Policy Landscape Evaluation Economic indicators

  14. Fragmentation – the division of a spatial unit into smaller and smaller spatial units • Private space – platting process • Jurisdictional space – the rise of local governments • The dominant process throughout the history of the United States • There has obviously been agglomeration of spatial units • Of private spaces • Of jurisdictions – Annexation – a particular type of agglomeration – theextension of jurisdictional space – applied to municipalities – urban areas

  15. Federal Policy • In the eighteenth & nineteenth centuries individuals migrated into a largely uninhabited continental interior in response to federal policy aimed at creating and promoting private landownership

  16. Basic Diagram - Fragmentation

  17. Fragmentation 1847-1853 Current

  18. Fragmentation

  19. “so much of the Town of St. Paul as is contained in the original plat of said town made by Ira Brunson, together with Irvine and Rice's addition, … is hereby created a town corporate, by the name of the town of St. Paul.” (Laws 1849 c.40) • “Bazil and Guerin's additions, Roberts' and Randall's additions, Hoyt's addition, and Whitney and Smith's addition to the town of St. Paul, and that part of the south east quarter of section thirty-one, east of Hoyt's addition, and Whitney and Smith's addition, and the couth west quarter of section thirty-two, in township No. twenty-nine, north of range No, twenty-two west, and lot No. one, in lection No. five, in township No. twenty-eight, north, range twenty-two, west of the fourth principal meridian, … are hereby included in the corporate limits of the town of Saint Paul” (Laws 1851 ch15)

  20. 1863

  21. Mendota. “so much land as is contained within the following limits … are hereby created a town corporate by the name of the town of Mendota, viz: Beginning at a point on the South side of the Minnesota river where the line of the Military Reserve strikes said river, thence down said river three fourths of a mile, thence south five eights of a mile, thence westerly to a point five eights of a mile south of the point of beginning, thence north to the place of beginning, being land reserved for a town site by an act of Congress entitled “An Act to reduce and define the boundaries of the Military Reserve at the St. peter’s river in the Territory of Minnesota Approved August 27, 1852.” (Laws 1853 c. 60)

  22. City of Stillwater. “Beginning at a point on the lake shore of Lake St. Croix, being the north-east Corner of section No. 21, in township No. 30 north, range 20 west; running thence one mile to the north-west corner of section 21; thence south along the west line of said section 33: thence east through the centre of sections No. 31, 39, 33, two and a half miles to a point on the west line of sections 113 and 31 to a point on Lake St. Croix; thence, north along said lake shore to the place of beginning.” (Laws 1854 c. 52)

  23. City of St Anthony. “The limits of said city shall be all that district of country on the east side of the Mississippi River included in section ten (10), west half of section eleven (II), section thirteen (13), fourteen (14), fifteen(15), twenty-three (23), twenty-four (24), and twenty-five (25) ; town twenty-nine (20) north of range twenty-four (24) west, being bounded on the west by the line of Ramsey County, as defined in chapter first and section third, in the Revised Statutes of the Territory of Minnesota.” (Laws 1855 c. 3) • Town of Henderson. “so much land as U contained within the southwest quarter of section one and the north-vent quarter of section twelve, int own one, hundred and twelve north, and range twenty-six, … is hereby created a town corporate by the name of Henderson. (Laws 1855 c. 107)

  24. 1857 regular session • Cities incorporated • Hastings • Red Wing • Winona • Towns incorporated • Cannon Falls • Chatfield • Clearwater • East Red Wing • La Crescent • Glencoe • New Ulm • Union City • Weston • Winnebago City

  25. 1857 extra session • Explosion of cities incorporated - 97

  26. Annexation • Growth of Chicago

  27. Fragmentation Annexation

  28. How Municipalities Grow • At the margins of the “urban” area - extending urban structures and infrastructure into the “rural” fringe - sprawl • Rural area annexed by municipality • Rural area subdivided by landowners • Lands dedicated to public use • Within the urban areas – existing urban structures and infrastructures are reformatted – redeveloped – replatted

  29. Horizontal Urban Sprawl - Suburbanization • Two processes • 1. Agglomeration • Municipality annexes non-urban land adjacent to urban land • Urban services, especially sewers and transportation arteries, extended into non-urban areas • 2. Fragmentation – landowner subdivides non-urban land on the margins of an urban area into private and public spaces

  30. Fellman, 1957 Proudfoot, 1957

  31. Sierra Club Natural Resources Defense Council American Farmland Trust Metropolitan Council Embrace Open Space (McKnight Foundation) Fresh Energy In 2004 the Minnesota Supreme Courtupheld a ruling that Lake Elmo must change subdivisions ordinances to allow increased urban development Appeals Court Last Fall Oregon Ballot Measure 37 - requiring governments to compensate landowners if regulations damage property values Last month Virginia Supreme Court ruled that Loundon County, the nation's fastest growing county, must change public policy to increase urban development A Tangent

  32. Twin Cities Metropolitan Area • Metropolitan Council • Local governments • 7 Counties • 138 Cities • 50 Townships • (49 School Districts) • (22 Special Purpose Districts)

  33. Planning for Urban Growth in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area • A 20-year study of two jurisdictions at the urban fringe of the Twin Cities metropolitan area • Concluded that current policies aimed at preserving permanent agricultural and rural areas cannot guarantee their preservation • Recommended that more vigorous policies and tools be explored to assure that designated permanent rural areas remain rural

  34. Planning for Urban Growth in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area • A 20-year study of two jurisdictions at the urban fringe of the Twin Cities metropolitan area • Concluded that current policies aimed at preserving permanent agricultural and rural areas cannot guarantee their preservation • Recommended that more vigorous policies and tools be explored to assure that designated permanent rural areas remain rural • Increased subdivision control?

  35. Managing Metropolitan Growth: Reflections on the Twin Cities Experience (Brookings Institution, 2003 )

  36. Annexation

  37. Annexation

  38. Annexation • Minnesota Statutes Chapter 414 • Minnesota Rules Chapter 6000 • Minnesota Municipal Board. Established in 1959. to hear and decide local incorporation and boundary adjustment questions • Laws 1997, c.202, Art 5, Sect 8 terminated the Minnesota Municipal Board effective on December 31, 1999 and transferred the authority and duties of the board to the Office of Strategic and Long-Range Planning (Minnesota Planning) • In 2003 transferred authority to Department of Administration • In 2005 transferred to the Office of Administrative Hearings

  39. Municipal Boundary Adjustment process • Status Reports • City limits: a report to the Minnesota Legislature on municipal boundary adjustments

  40. Brief History • Municipal boundary chaos • In just one decade in five metropolitan counties • 45 new villages were organized • Almost half contained under 1,000 people • 7 contained under 200 • 1 contained only 43 • End of the 1950s, 130 separate municipalities existed in the seven-county Twin Cities area • Most of the villages lacked means to furnish their own police and fire protection or adequate sewage disposal facilities

  41. Minnesota Municipal Board • Established in 1959 to decide incorporation and boundary adjustment questions and to guide urban growth • At the time public policy addressing incorporation and boundary changes were either nonexistent or haphazard • 1999 Minnesota Municipal Board duties and responsibilities transferred to the Office of Strategic and Long-Range Planning - Minnesota Planning • Municipal Boundary Adjustments • Metropolitan Council

  42. Minnesota Statutes c. 414 (Laws, 1959 c 686 s 1 as amended) • sound urban development and preservation of agricultural land and open spaces through land use planning is essential to the continued economic growth of this state • municipal government most efficiently provides governmental services in areas intensively developed for residential, commercial, industrial, and governmental purposes • township government most efficiently provides governmental services in areas used or developed for agricultural, open space, and rural residential purposes

  43. Minnesota Statutes c. 414 (Laws, 1959 c 686 s 1 as amended) • the public interest requires that municipalities be formed when there exists, or will likely exist, the necessary resources to provide for their economical and efficient operation • annexation to existing municipalities of unincorporated areas unable to supply municipal services should be facilitated • the consolidation of municipalities should be encouraged

  44. Minnesota Statutes 414.031. Annexation by board order • A proceeding for annexing unincorporated land abutting a municipality may be initiated by • a resolution of the annexing municipality • a resolution of the township containing the area proposed for annexation • a petition of 20 percent of the property owners or 100 property owners, whichever is less, in the area to be annexed • a resolution of the municipal council together with a resolution of the township board stating their desire to have the entire township annexed to the municipality

  45. Minnesota Planning hold hearings - decision based upon • (1) present population and projected growth • (2) acreage and type of land involved • (3) degree of contiguity of the boundaries • (4) present pattern of physical development and future land uses • (5) present and future transportation network • (6) present land use controls • (7) existing and future levels of governmental services

  46. Minnesota Planning hold hearings - decision based upon • (8) existing and future environmental problems • (10) fiscal impacts • (11) effect of the proposed action on school districts and communities • (12) adequacy of town government to deliver services to the subject area; • (13) analysis of whether necessary governmental services can best be provided through the proposed action or another type of boundary adjustment; and • (14) effect on area not annexed

  47. Annexation by Ordinance • Used in limited circumstances where specific statutory criteria are met • the land to be annexed abuts the city • the land does not exceed 60 acres • the land is not presently served by public sewer facilities • the city receives a petition for annexation from all property owners of the land  • Minnesota Planning reviews the annexation to determine whether the statutory criteria are met