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Food groups and the nutrients they provide

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  1. Food groups and the nutrients they provide

  2. So far…. • What NZ’ers eat – National nutrition surveys • Dietary Assessment – use of RDI’s, estimated requirements, percentage contribution to Energy • Essential nutrients – functions, food sources • Digestion

  3. Next…. Food & Nutrition Guidelines In particular – food groups and nutrients provided, proportions, variety, use as a form of dietary assessment

  4. Estimating Nutrient needs Protein • Level of physical activity vs Amount of protein • Average healthy adult0.8g protein for each kg you weigh • General sports activity1.0g protein for each kg you weigh • Strength training athletes1.2-1.6g protein for each kg you weigh • Endurance training athletes1.2-1.6g protein for each kg you weigh • Example: A 65kg person doing only a small amount of exercise each week requires approximately 52g protein per day.

  5. Carbohydrates • Level of physical activity and Amount of carbohydrate • General sports training (up to 60 mins of training per day or unlimited low-intensity training5-6g CHO/kg bwt • Moderately training athletes (60-120mins of intense or lengthy medium-intensity exercise6-8g CHO/kg bwt • Endurance training (over 120 mins of intense training per day)8-10g CHO/kg bwt • Example: A 65kg person doing regular walking each week (3-5 days, 40-50mins) requires approximately 325g CHO per day.

  6. Fat General guideline is 1g fat per kg bodyweight for adults, and not less than 30g per day. • Example: A 65kg person requires approximately 65g fat per day. • Reference • Burke, L. (1995). The Complete Guide to Food for Sports Performance. Australia: Allen & Unwin.

  7. NZ Food & Nutrition Guidelines What are they? • Developed to assist individuals to make choices about what to eat to keep healthy • Based on knowing what NZ’ers currently eat (NNS), achieving RDI’s, food availability • Food based statements • Population based • Age group specific • Developed and updated by Ministry of Health

  8. We know… • Many N Z’ers eat foods which supply too much fat (particularly saturated fat), salt, and sugar, and not enough dietary fibre, calcium and iron • People need a range of essential nutrients which include carbohydrates, protein, fat, fibre, vitamins, minerals and trace elements

  9. Food groups • Foods can be grouped into four groups based on similarity of the nutrients they provide • Vegetables and fruits • Breads and cereals • Meat and alternatives • Milk and milk products No one single food or food group provides all required nutrients therefore need to choose a range of foods from each group Note – not all foods within each group will contain all these nutrients

  10. Vegetables and fruits • Includes fresh, frozen, canned and dried • High in complex CHO, fibre and water • Low in saturated fat and total fat • Vitamins – A (dark green and yellow vege), C (green vege, most fruits, potatoes) and folate • Minerals (magnesium, potassium) • Phytochemicals eg lycopene

  11. Number of servings Eat at least five servings per day; at least 3 servings of vegetables and at least two servings of fruits • 1 apple, pear, banana, orange • 1 medium potato, kumara etc • ½ cup stewed fruit (fresh, frozen or canned), ½ cup cooked vege/salad • 1 cup fruit juice, 25 g dried fruit – (only one serving of juice or dried fruit counts towards your total number of servings for the day)

  12. Breads and cereals • Includes all breads, grains, rice and pasta • Carbohydrate esp complex • Dietary fibre – soluble and insoluble • Protein - incomplete • Vitamins B (except B12), E (rich in wheat germ) • Minerals - magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc and selenium (wholegrain products)

  13. Number of servings Eat at least six servings per day Try to choose wholegrain • 1 med sl bread • 1 cup cornflakes • 1 cup cooked pasta/rice • 2 plain sweet biscuits

  14. Milk and milk products • Includes cheese, yoghurt, icecream • Protein • Fats-higher proportion of saturated fats than poly or mono fat esp in full-fat products • Minerals – esp calcium phosphorus, zinc and iodine • Vitamins –riboflavin, B12, A

  15. Number of servings Choose at least two servings of milk or milk products each day Preferable reduced or low fat, if drinking soy milk check label to see if fortified • 1 Glass milk (250 ml) • Container of yoghurt (150g) • 2 sl cheese • 2 scoops ice cream

  16. Lean meats, poultry, fish, eggs, nuts, seeds and legumes • Protein • Fat – both visible and marbled in meat, (mostly saturated fat, cholesterol): mostly unsaturated in seafood, nuts and seeds • Legumes (dried beans and peas) – complex carbohydrate • Vitamins – B12, niacin, thiamin • Minerals – iron, zinc, magnesium, copper, potassium, phosphorus and selenium

  17. Number of servings Choose at least one serving from this group each day Choose lean meats, chicken without skin • 2 sl cooked meat (approx 100g) • ¾ cup mince or casserole • 1 egg • 1 med fillet fish • ¾ cup dried cooked beans • 2 drumsticks or 1 chicken leg (110g)

  18. What foods don’t fit into food groups?

  19. Proportions Food models/guides are one way to demonstrate in visual way to consumers the proportions of food groups for a healthy diet • Pyramid • Plate • Maori – different sized baskets • PI – shell, heart

  20. Considerations when developing guide/model • Based on up to date science • Target audience – general health and disease prevention • Group foods in useful way • Allow flexibility for consumers that suits taste and lifestyle • Reduce inequalities • Culturally appropriate foods and messaging

  21. USDA Pyramid • • Pyramid type model, launched April 2005 Parts of model symbolise • Activity • Moderation • Proportionality • Variety • Personalisation • Gradual improvement

  22. ‘Extras’/ ‘Other’ foods • Some countries have a 5th food group for fats and oils • NHF recommends no more than 1-2 T of fats or oils/day • NZ – has Nutrition Guideline – prepare foods or choose foods, drinks and snacks low in fat, sugar and salt

  23. Promotion of F & N Guidelines • 5+ADAY industry group – promotional materials in supermarkets, school programme, focused on what is a serving, now introduced 5+ADAY THE COLOUR WAY Website

  24. Pros & Cons of food pyramid concept Cons • All fats equivalent • All complex carbohydrates equivalent • All meats equivalent • Needs additional info-serving sizes Pros • Simplicity • Useful tool for nutrition education

  25. Mediterranean Diet Pyramid Evidence • Seven countries study-documented diets of 13000 men in Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia, Netherlands, Japan and US • Populations eating the most sat fat had the highest levels of blood cholesterol and the most heart disease • Interest in diet of Japan and Greece

  26. Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (2) • Lyon Heart Study 1990’s • 600 French men who had had heart attack • One group followed AHA diet • Other group followed Mediterranean diet • Mediterranean diet group showed 70% reduction in death from all causes including heart disease and cancer

  27. Mediterranean diet differences • Emphasis on plant foods, less on meat • Meat – 200g per week (NZ 150g per day) • Fish – a few times per week (omega 3) • Legumes eaten instead of meat at least twice a week • Large amount of vege esp green leafy, integral part of meal not ‘on the side’ • Nuts-30g/day (omega 3)

  28. Mediterranean diet differences (2) • Low GI carbohydrates • Alcohol – 20g per day with meals • Low intake of milk products • High fruit intake (2-3 fruits/day) • High fat diet (40%), high monounsaturated