Digestion and absorption of the food nutrients
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Digestion and Absorption of the Food Nutrients. Chapter 3 Part 3. GI Tract Disorders. Factors influencing GI function Emotional state Intestinal cramping, queasy stomach Exercise - moderate Reduces liver disease Gallstones Constipation Colon cancer. GI Tract Disorders.

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Gi tract disorders
GI Tract Disorders

  • Factors influencing GI function

    • Emotional state

      • Intestinal cramping, queasy stomach

    • Exercise - moderate

      • Reduces liver disease

      • Gallstones

      • Constipation

      • Colon cancer


Gi tract disorders1
GI Tract Disorders

  • Factors influencing GI function

    • Exercise – high intensity

      • GERD

      • Hiatal hernia

      • Irritable bowel syndrome

      • Viral gastroenteritis


Gi tract disorders2
GI Tract Disorders

  • More frequent in women

  • Common in young athletes

  • Infrequent in gliding movement sports

    • Cycling

  • Serious medical conditions


Gi tract disorders3
GI Tract Disorders

  • Constipation

    • Defecation habits are different among people.

      • Difficult or infrequent evacuation

    • Many causes are possible.

      • Ignoring normal urges

      • Muscle spasms

        • Slows feces movement

      • Certain medications and supplements

        • Antacids, calcium, iron


Gi tract disorders4
GI Tract Disorders

  • Constipation

    • Colonic irrigation is the internal washing of the large intestine and can be hazardous.

    • Strategies

      • High-fiber diet

      • Increased fluids

      • Exercise regularly.

      • Respond quickly to the urge to defecate.


Gi tract disorders5
GI Tract Disorders

  • Laxatives

    • Can work on the intestinal nerve plexus or mucosal surface

    • Bulk producing laxatives

      • Bran

    • Stool softeners

      • Dulcolax

    • Hydrating agents

      • Milk of magnesia

    • Hyperosmotic agents

      • Glycerol

    • Draw water into the large intestine

    • Regular use can be harmful

      • Decreases muscle action of large intestine


Gi tract disorders6
GI Tract Disorders

  • Belching and Gas

    • Strategies

      • Eat slowly.

      • Chew thoroughly.

      • Relax while eating.

      • Watch bothersome foods.

  • Hiccups are triggered by eating or drinking too fast.


Gi tract disorders7
GI Tract Disorders

  • Hemorrhoids may be a problem.

    • Swollen veins of the rectum and anus

    • Intense pressure and straining

    • Dietary recommendation:

      • Fiber and fluid


Gi tract disorders8
GI Tract Disorders

  • Diarrhea: 2009-1.5 million deaths worldwide

    • Frequent, loose, watery stools

      • Irritable bowel syndrome or colitis

      • Infections-bacteria, viruses

      • Cause excess intestinal secretions


Gi tract disorders9
GI Tract Disorders

  • Types of Diarrhea

    • Secretory

      • Increased secretion or reduced absorption of fluids

      • Cholera (secretes Cl- into intestinal lumen, Na+ follows)

    • Osmotic

      • Lactose intolerance, high sugar solutions (particularly during ex.)

    • Exudative

      • Crohn’s disease (blood in bowel)

    • Motility related

      • Increased motility, diabetic neuropathy

    • Inflammatory

      • Infections

    • Dysentery

      • Blood in stool, caused by salmonella poisoning, for ex.


Gi tract disorders10
GI Tract Disorders

  • Diverticulosis

    • Intestinal walls weaken and bulge. The bulging pockets are called diverticula

  • Diverticulitis

    • Worsened condition – inflammation

    • Requires intervention - surgery

  • Increase fiber intake


Gi tract disorders11
GI Tract Disorders

  • Heartburn

    • Lower esophageal sphincter – relaxes

      • Reflux

      • Painful

        • Acid from stomach reaches esophagus and irritates lining


Gi tract disorders12
GI Tract Disorders

  • Heartburn and Acid Indigestion

    • Strategies

      • Small meals

      • Liquids between meals

      • Sit up while eating.

      • Wait 1 hour after eating before lying down.

      • Wait 2 hours after eating before exercising.

      • Refrain from tight-fitting clothing.

      • Avoid bothersome foods.

      • Refrain from tobacco use.

      • Lose weight if overweight.


Gi tract disorders13
GI Tract Disorders

  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    • Backward flow of stomach contents into the esophagus.

    • Exercise exacerbates GERD

    • > 60% athletes

      • Worst in weightlifters

      • Mild in endurance runners


Gi tract disorders14
GI Tract Disorders

  • Antacids and acid controllers may help indigestion.

  • 4 hr from evening meal to bed

  • Avoid exercising after eating

  • Avoid foods that relax sphincter

    • Chocolate, peppermint, coffee, alcohol, tobacco,


Gi tract disorders15
GI Tract Disorders

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    • Symptoms

      • Cramps, bloating, increased frequency, diarrhea, constipation

    • Causes

      • Altered intestinal peristalsis

      • Decrease pain threshold


Gi tract disorders16
GI Tract Disorders

  • Individualized treatment

    • Elimination diet-dairy, gas-forming foods (cabbage, beans), some fruit-grapes, cherries

    • high fiber foods

    • Moderate caffeine, avoid dairy

    • Low-fat, small, frequent meals

    • Stress reduction


Choking
Choking

  • Food becomes lodged in the trachea.

  • The larynx cannot make sounds.

  • The Heimlich maneuver may need to be used.

  • Strategies

    • Small bites

    • Chew thoroughly.

    • Don’t talk or laugh with food in the mouth.

    • Don’t eat when breathing hard.


Ulcers
Ulcers

  • Peptic ulcer

    • Area of GI tract eroded by gastric acid, pepsin

    • Exposes nerves

    • 15% stomach

    • 85% duodenal

    • Diet

      • Soluble fiber – fruits, vegetables: protective

      • Refined sugar: increases risk


Ulcers1
Ulcers

  • Treatment

    • Antibiotics

      • Helicobacter pylori

        • Cause of most ulcers

    • Proton pump (H+) inhibitors

      • Keep HCL from forming

    • Antacids

      • Neutralize stomach acids


Vomiting
Vomiting

  • Body’s adaptive mechanism

  • Dehydration is a concern.

  • May be self-induced as in eating disorders