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## H atomic mass 1.00795 4x 4.03180 amu He 4.00260 amu 0.0292 amu

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**H atomic mass 1.00795**4x 4.03180 amu He 4.00260 amu 0.0292 amu**H atomic mass 1.00795**4x 4.03180 amu He 4.00260 amu 0.0292 amu So % mass decrease = 0.0292/4.0318 (x100)% 0.0072424227392231757527655141624088 % 0.00724 x 100 = 0.724**H atomic mass 1.00795**4x 4.03180 amu He 4.00260 amu 0.0292 amu So % mass decrease = 0.0292/4.0318 (x100)% 0.0072424227392231757527655141624088 % 0.00724 x 100 = 0.724 By E = mc2 1kg = (3x108)2 J = 9x1016 J**H atomic mass 1.00795**4x 4.03180 amu He 4.00260 amu 0.0292 amu So % mass decrease = 0.0292/4.0318 (x100)% 0.0072424227392231757527655141624088 % 0.00724 x 100 = 0.724% By E = mc2 1kg = (3x108)2 J = 9x1016 J So 1gm = 9x1013J 0.7 x 10-2x 9x1013 = 6.5 x 1011**H atomic mass 1.00795**4x 4.03180 amu He 4.00260 amu 0.0292 amu So % mass decrease = 0.0292/4.0318 (x100)% 0.0072424227392231757527655141624088 % 0.00724 x 100 = 0.724 By E = mc2 1kg = (3x108)2 J = 9x1016 J So 1gm = 9x1013J 0.7 x 10-2x 9x1013 = 6.5 x 1011 9x1013/4.2x109 = 2x104 20 kilotons TNT**H atomic mass 1.00795**4x 4.03180 amu He 4.00260 amu 0.0292 amu So % mass decrease = 0.0292/4.0318 (x100)% 0.0072424227392231757527655141624088 % 0.00724 x 100 = 0.724 By E = mc2 1kg = (3x108)2 J = 9x1016 J So 1gm = 9x1013J 0.7 x 10-2x 9x1013 = 6.5 x 1011 9x1013/4.2x109 = 2x104 20 kilotons TNT The Nagasaki bomb had 6kg Plutonium and 1gm was converted so it was 20kT bomb S what??? Energy of one tone of TNT TNT equivalent is a method of quantifying the energy released in explosions. The ton (or tonne) of TNT is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 gigajoules, which is approximately the amount of energy released in the detonation of one ton of TNT. The megaton is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 petajoules[1].**By E = mc2 1kg = (3x108)2 J**= 9x1016 J So 1gm = 9x1013J 0.7 x 10-2x 9x1013 = 6.5 x 1011 9x1013/4.2x109 = 2x104 20 kilotons TNT The Hiroshima bomb had 6kg Plutonium and 1gm was converted so it was 20kT bomb S what??? Energy of one tone of TNT TNT equivalent is a method of quantifying the energy released in explosions. The ton (or tonne) of TNT is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 gigajoules, which is approximately the amount of energy released in the detonation of one ton of TNT. The megaton is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 petajoules[1].**http://www.simetric.co.uk/siprefix.htm**Note: A very common mistake is that the prefix milli- stands for a millionth**H atomic mass 1.00782**4x 4.03128 amu He 4.00260 amu 0.02868 amu So % mass decrease = 0.02868/4.03128 (x100)% % 0.00711 x 100 = 0.711% By E = mc2 1kg = (3x108)2 J = 9x1016 J So 1gm = 9x1013J 9x1013/4.2x109 = 2x104 So 1gm ≡ 20 kilotons of TNT When 1gm H → He 0.7% mass lost so the yield is 0.15kT TNT or ~150 Tons of TNT**So 1gm = 9x1013J**9x1013/4.2x109 = 2x104 So 1gm ≡ 20 kilotons of TNT When 1gm H → He 0.7% mass lost so the yield is 0.15kT TNT or ~150 Tons of TNT So what??? Energy of one ton of TNT TNT equivalent is a method of quantifying the energy released in explosions. The ton (or tonne) of TNT is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 gigajoules, which is approximately the amount of energy released in the detonation of one ton of TNT. The megaton is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 petajoules[1].**In the SI system (expressing the ratio E / m in joules per**kilogram using the value of c in meters per second): • E / m = c2 = (299,792,458 m/s)2 = 89,875,517,873,681,764 J/kg (≈9.0 × 1016 joules per kilogram) • So one gram of mass is equivalent to the following amounts of energy: • 89.9 terajoules • 24.9 million kilowatt-hours (≈25 GW·h) • 21.5 billion kilocalories (≈21 Tcal) [2] • 21.5 kilotons of TNT-equivalent energy (≈21 kt) [2] • 85.2 billion BTUs[2] • Any time energy is generated, the process can be evaluated from an E = mc2 perspective. For instance, the "Gadget"-style bomb used in the Trinity test and the bombing of Nagasaki had an explosive yield equivalent to 21 kt of TNT. About 1 kg of the approximately 6.15 kg of plutonium in each of these bombs fissioned into lighter elements totaling almost exactly one gram less,**Note: A very common mistake is that the prefix milli- stands**for a millionth**Einstein used the CGS system of units (centimeters, grams,**seconds, dynes, and ergs), but the formula is independent of the system of units. In natural units, the speed of light is defined to equal 1, and the formula expresses an identity: E = m. In the SI system (expressing the ratio E / m in joules per kilogram using the value of c in meters per second): • E / m = c2 = (299,792,458 m/s)2 = 89,875,517,873,681,764 J/kg (≈9.0 × 1016 joules per kilogram) • So one gram of mass is equivalent to the following amounts of energy: • 89.9 terajoules • 24.9 million kilowatt-hours (≈25 GW·h) • 21.5 billion kilocalories (≈21 Tcal) [2] • 21.5 kilotons of TNT-equivalent energy (≈21 kt) [2] • 85.2 billion BTUs[2] • Any time energy is generated, the process can be evaluated from an E = mc2 perspective. For instance, the "Gadget"-style bomb used in the Trinity test and the bombing of Nagasaki had an explosive yield equivalent to 21 kt of TNT. About 1 kg of the approximately 6.15 kg of plutonium in each of these bombs fissioned into lighter elements totaling almost exactly one gram less, after cooling [The heat, light, and electromagnetic radiation released in this explosion carried the missing one gram of mass.][3] This occurs because nuclear binding energy is released whenever elements with more than 62 nucleons fission. • Another example is hydroelectric generation.**The electrical energy produced by Grand Coulee**Dam’sturbines every 3.7 hours represents one gram of mass. This mass passes to the electrical devices which are powered by the generators (such as lights in cities), where it appears as a gram of heat and light.[4] Turbine designers look at their equations in terms of pressure, torque, and RPM. However, Einstein’s equations show that all energy has mass, and thus the electrical energy produced by a dam's generators, and the heat and light which result from it, all retain their mass, which is equivalent to the energy. The potential energy—and equivalent mass—represented by the waters of the Columbia River as it descends to the Pacific Ocean would be converted to heat due to viscous friction and the turbulence of white water rapids and waterfalls were it not for the dam and its generators. This heat would remain as mass on site at the water, were it not for the equipment which converted some of this potential and kinetic energy into electrical energy, which can be moved from place to place (taking mass with it). Whenever energy is added to a system, the system gains mass.**This is a sciencve class so**Why is the sky blue Is there a mathematical relation Is rthere a diaagram What is the rul What is the question Is there an answer Is there a conclusion**So if the ratio is say frequency 1:2**Then Scattering 1:16 Blue light to Red ca 400nm:600nm So the ratio is 4:6 Scattering 44:64 256: 1296 1296/256 = 5.062 6x6x6x6/4x4x4x4 = 3x3x3x3/2x2x2x2 =81/16 ~ 10/2 =5**Wavelengths = 1/frequency**So do not have to convert scattering ~ ω4 ~ 1/λ4 580nm = 580 nm 6 ~ 1296 = 13 x 102 405nm = 405 nm 4 ~ 256 = 2.6X102 1cm = 107 nm 105 ~ 1020 = 1018**Accuracy issues!!!!!!**When to be accuirate And When You need an estimate Sine wave accuarte Blue scattering vv red Order of magnitude estimate OK Can I read it Is it organised so I can mark it Can I see the steps in sequence Was it lifted straigh from the web or did yoiun do the diagarams yourself -**Conventional bunker buster bombs yield range from less than**1 ton to MOAB's 11 tonnes. Minor Scale, a 1985 United States conventional explosion utilizing 4,800 short tons (4,400 t) of ANFO explosive to simulate a 4 kilotons of TNT (17 TJ) nuclear explosion, is believed to be the largest planned detonation of conventional explosives in history. The Little Boyatomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, exploded with an energy of about 15 kilotons of TNT (63 TJ). The nuclear weapons currently in the arsenal of the United States range in yield from 0.3 kt (1.3 TJ) to 1.2 Mt (5.0 PJ) equivalent, for the B83 strategic bomb. During the Cold War, the United States developed hydrogen bombs with a maximum theoretical yield of 25 megatons of TNT (100 PJ); the Soviet Union developed a prototype weapon, nick-named the Tsar Bomba, which was tested at 50 Mt (210 PJ), but had a maximum theoretical yield of 100 Mt (420 PJ).[5] The actual destructive potential of such weapons can vary greatly depending on conditions, such as the altitude at which they are detonated, the nature of the target they are detonated against, and the physical features of the landscape where they are detonated.**1 megaton of TNT (4.2 PJ), when converted to**kilowatt-hours, produces enough energy to power the average American household (in the year 2007) for 103,474 Years.[6] For example, the 30 Mt (130 PJ) estimated upper limit blast power of the Tunguska event could power the aforementioned home for just over 3,104,226 years. To put that in perspective: the blast energy could power the entire United States for 3.27 days.[7] Megathrust earthquakes record huge MW values, or total energy released. The 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake released 9,560 gigatons of TNT (40,000 EJ) equivalent, but its ME (surface rupture energy, or potential for damage) was far smaller at 26.3 megatons of TNT (110 PJ). On a much grander scale, supernova explosions give off about 1044 joules of energy, which is about ten octillion (1028) megatons of TNT. The maximum theoretical energy from total conversion of matter to energy when 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of antimatterannihilates with 1 kilogram of matter the reaction is 17.975 × 1016 J, which is equal to 42.92 Mt. This is given by the equationE = mc2.[8]**Note: A very common mistake is that the prefix milli- stands**for a millionth