principles of muscular strength and endurance primarily a non aerobic activity chapters 6 and 7 n.
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Principles of Muscular Strength and Endurance ( Primarily A Non-Aerobic Activity) Chapters 6 and 7. Muscular Strength. Strength the maximal force a muscle can generate for a single maximal effort One of the best ways to determine strength is by performing a 1-RM (one repetition max).

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muscular strength
Muscular Strength
  • Strength
    • the maximal force a muscle can generate for a single maximal effort
  • One of the best ways to determine strength is by performing a 1-RM (one repetition max)
muscular endurance
Muscular Endurance
  • Endurance
    • The ability of a muscle to generate a sub-maximalforce,repeatedly, over time.
defining sets and repetitions one set is made up of a number of repetitions
Defining Sets and Repetitions:One set is made up of a number of repetitions
  • Example: One set of 4 repetitions
identify your goal
Identify Your Goal
  • To build primarily strength and power?
  • To build primarily endurance?
  • To gain some strength and some endurance?
  • To develop great hypertrophy (increase in muscle size)?
is your goal to develop primarily strength
Is Your Goal To Develop Primarily Strength?
  • 3 sets on each muscle group
  • Fewer than 8 repetitions in each set
  • Heavy resistance (80 to 90% of 1RM)
  • Fatigue on last rep
  • No more than 2 to 3 total body workouts per week.
is your goal to develop primarily endurance
Is Your Goal To Develop Primarily Endurance?
  • 3 sets on each muscle group (possibly more)
  • More than 12-15 repetitions in each set
  • Light resistance (50 to 60 % or less of 1RM)
  • Fatigue on last rep
  • No more than 2 to 3 total body workouts per week (possibly more)
is your goal to develop some strength and some endurance
Is Your Goal To Develop Some Strength and Some Endurance?
  • 3 sets on each muscle group
  • Between 8 and 12 repetitions in each set
  • Fatigue on last rep
  • Moderate resistance (60% of 1RM / perhaps slightly more)
  • No more than 2 to 3 total body workouts per week
is your goal hypertrophy
Is Your Goal Hypertrophy?
  • Follow strength training procedures
  • Add some intensive endurance training procedures
  • Example to follow
100 lbs.

3 sets

6 reps (fatigue)

1800 lbs moved

50 lbs.

3 sets

20 reps (fatigue)

3000 lbs moved

how do i determine the appropriate amount of resistance for my workout
How Do I Determine The Appropriate Amount Of Resistance For My Workout?
  • Establish your goal, then choose one of the 3 following methods to determine your resistance:
    • 1RM
    • Trial and error
    • Delorme and Watkins
one repetition maximum 1rm
One Repetition Maximum (1RM)
  • Determine your 1RM
  • Work out at a percentage of your 1RM (percentage is based on your goal)
trial and error
Trial And Error
  • Consider your goal
  • Determine an amount of resistance you can lift for the identified number of reps so that you fatigue on the last repetition
progressive resistance training delorme and watkins
Progressive Resistance Training: Delorme and Watkins
  • Determine your 10 repetition maximum (10 RM)
  • Complete 3 sets
  • Intensity varies by set
    • 1st set: 50% of 10 RM load
    • 2nd set: 75% of 10 RM load
    • 3rd set: 100% of 10 RM load
  • NEVER hold your breath while exerting force
  • Valsalva effect or valsalva maneuver
  • Exhale as you apply force
  • Inhale as you recover
practical guidelines for resistance training
Practical Guidelines for Resistance Training
  • Warm up
  • Adjust equipment
  • Exercise large muscle groups first
    • Legs or large muscles in the upper body
  • Begin any resistive training program slowly and with lower intensities
  • Ultimately, you must overload
practical guidelines for resistance training1
Practical Guidelines for Resistance Training
  • Strengthen your weak side:
    • Working arms and legs independently
  • Isolate the muscle group
  • Protect the back
  • Total body workout
    • Should be done no more than 2 - 3 times per week
    • May alternate days
    • May alternate equipment to save time
how many sets and reps should i perform
How Many Sets and Reps Should I Perform?
  • First Time In The Weight Room?
    • Complete one or two sets on each piece of equipment
    • Over time, progress to 2 sets, then 3 sets
maintenance and re assessment guidelines for resistance training
Maintenance and Re-assessment Guidelines for Resistance Training
  • Maintenance
    • Two sets, two times per week OR
    • One set of 12 repetitions
      • Fatigue on the last rep
  • Reassess periodically
factors effecting muscular strength and endurance training
Factors Effecting Muscular Strength and Endurance Training
  • Muscle Size
  • Gender
  • Age
  • Muscular strength is lost at a rate of 1% per year after the age of 25
    • Use it or lose it
  • Tuft’s University
prevention of osteoporosis
Prevention of Osteoporosis
  • Weight bearing activity
  • Sufficient calcium
  • Appropriateestrogen levels
  • Improved appearance
  • Improved body composition
  • Hypertrophy: increase muscle size
  • Decreased body fat
  • Minimal increase in flexibility
  • Improved performance in daily living activities and potentially sport and game skills
  • Increased basal metabolic rate
  • Increases metabolism
  • Includes all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells necessary to sustain life
  • In short, it is the way the body produces energy
metabolic rate
Metabolic Rate
  • The rate at which one burns calories
    • The higher, the better
  • Varies based on:
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Amount of muscle mass
metabolic rate1
Metabolic Rate
  • Low metabolismis primarily related to a sedentary lifestyle

(no matter the age)

        • loss of muscle mass lowers metabolism
basal metabolic rate bmr
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  • The number of calories required to sustain life in the resting state
  • The higher the BMR (or calories burned at rest) – the more desirable
    • Develop a calorie burning body!
basal metabolic rate bmr 2
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) #2
  • As lean body mass increases, BMR increases
    • Each pound of muscle tissue raises BMR by 30 to 50 calories every 24 hours
    • Each pound of fat burns 2 calories every 24 hours
work out willy vs couch potato pete


170 pounds

Consumes 2900 calories

900 calories spent in activity & movement

12% BF

BMR=2000 calories



170 pounds

Consumes 2900 calories

500 calories spent in activity & movement

20% BF

BMR=1600 calories

Work Out Willy VS Couch Potato Pete
willy vs pete
Willy vs. Pete
  • Does Couch Potato Pete need to lose weight sense he has 20% body fat and weighs 170 pounds?
types of skeletal muscular contractions
Types of Skeletal Muscular Contractions
  • Isometric
  • Concentric
  • Eccentric
isometric contractions
Isometric Contractions
  • No appreciable change in length of the muscle( static contraction)
  • Involves no skeletal or joint movement
concentric contractions dynamic
Concentric Contractions (dynamic)
  • The muscle shortens during contraction
    • Positive contraction
eccentric contraction dynamic
Eccentric Contraction (dynamic)
  • Themuscle lengthensduring contraction
    • Negative contraction
muscle soreness
Muscle Soreness
  • Results from structural damage
  • Desirable to have small, microscopic tears
avoiding muscle soreness
Avoiding Muscle Soreness
  • Stretch
  • Minimize eccentric training
  • Minimize isometric training
  • Begin training using low intensities
  • Progress slowly
isometric training
Isometric Training
  • Increases strength at a given joint angle
  • No joint movement
    • Must work at a variety of joint angles
    • At one time a preferred method of strength training for athletes
  • Used in rehab settings
isometric training precautions
Isometric Training Precautions
  • Isometric contractions are contraindicated for:
    • hypertensive (valsalva effect)
    • individuals presenting coronary risk
isotonic training
Isotonic Training
  • Characteristics of isotonic training :
    • Constant resistance
    • Variable speed of muscular contraction
isotonic training1
Isotonic Training
  • Most common method of strength training
    • Also known asprogressive resistance training
    • Principle of Overload
  • Work through a full ROM
  • Involves use of free weights or machines
free weights
Free Weights
  • Use a spotter
  • Increased chance of injury
  • Lack of stability
  • May build strength faster
  • Weight increments are easily changed
weight machines
Weight Machines
  • Weight increments are usually 5 to 10 to 15 pounds
  • The machine controls the line of force
  • Offers stability
  • Fewer injuries
  • No spotter required
isokinetic training principles
Isokinetic Training Principles
  • Computerized - relies on hydraulics
  • Characterized by:
    • variable resistance
    • constant speed or velocity of the muscular contraction
other strength training techniques
Other Strength Training Techniques
  • Circuit Training
  • Plyometrics
  • Calisthenics
circuit training
Circuit Training
  • Uses a series of 12 to 15 stations
  • Rotate through the circuit 3 times
  • Consists of combinations of:
    • Weight training
    • Calisthenics
    • Brief aerobic exercise
  • Develops muscle explosiveness and forcefulness
  • Consists of an eccentric contraction followed by a concentric contraction
  • Involves hops, bounds, depth jumping
  • High probability of injury
  • The body and its extremities provide resistance
calisthenics 2
Calisthenics #2
  • Often used in aerobic dance routines
  • Ab crunches and push ups are examples
  • Best suited as a supplement to strength training rather than a substitute
  • Good approach for a beginner