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Conditioning For Muscular Strength. Overload Principle. Work muscle above and beyond what it is accustomed to and it will adapt ! Overload may be an increase: Resistance Repetitions / Sets Contraction velocity. Adaptation and Specificity.

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overload principle
Overload Principle
  • Work muscle above and beyond what it is accustomed to and it will adapt !
  • Overload may be an increase:
    • Resistance
    • Repetitions / Sets
    • Contraction velocity
adaptation and specificity
Adaptation and Specificity
  • Muscles adapt differently based on the type of overload placed on them.
  • Specify the training regimen to elicit the desired adaptations.
specificity of training
Specificity of Training
  • Training should “overload” the system / muscle type that the individual wishes to train!
    • IE: Energy systems, muscle fiber type, and sport specificity.
muscle fiber types
Muscle Fiber Types
  • Fast Twitch (FG / Type II)
    •  anaerobic capacity
      • Type IIa (FOG) vs. IIb
    • Fatigue easily
    • Fast contractile velocity (Vmax)
muscle fiber types1
Muscle Fiber Types
  • Slow Twitch (SO / Type I)
    • Vmax = ½ Vmax of FG fibers
    •  Mitochondria Density
    •  [Aerobic Enzymes]
muscle fiber types and performance
Muscle Fiber Types and Performance
  • Genetics
  • Specificity of Training
  • Fiber Conversion

*Power = Force X Velocity *

types of contractions
Types of Contractions
  • Concentric: Muscle shortens w/ contraction
  • Eccentric: Muscle lengthens while it is contracted.
  • Static (Isometric): No change in muscle length w/ contraction
types of training
Types of Training
  • Isotonic: Movement of a set resistance through a ROM
  • Isokinetic: Speed of contraction is controlled while subject exerts max effort
  • Isometric: Training using static contractions
fatigue
Fatigue
  • Muscular fatigue is caused by decreases in pH brought about by buildup of lactic acid.
    • LA builds up due to lack of O2 to buffer H+ ions resulting from glycolysis. These H+ combine with pyruvate to form LA.
slide12
DOMS
  • Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
    • Caused by:
      • Minute tears in muscle tissue*
      • Acute inflammation*
      • Alteration in cell’s Calcium regulation*
      • Osmotic pressure changes (retention of fluid)
      • Muscle spasms
      • Any combination of the above
adaptations to strength training
Adaptations to Strength Training
  • Neural Adaptations (First 8-12 weeks)
    • Learn Movement (Motor Learning)
    •  Coordination
    •  Motor Unit Recruitment
    •  Coordination of Motor Unit
    • Neuromuscular inhibition (GTO , Muscle Spindles)
muscular adaptations
Muscular Adaptations
  • Muscle Fibers (Physical Changes)
    • Increase in Size: Hypertrophy (Particularly Type II)
      • Directly proportional to the VOLUME of overload
        • Volume = Resistance X Repetitions
    • Increase in Number: Hyperplasia (?)
muscle fiber conversion
Muscle Fiber Conversion?
  • Studies are inconclusive???
    • Most show no change or very little
    • Appears that IIb  IIa w/ intense aerobic training
    • Largely genetic and relatively stable (Absolute Number)
energy system adaptations
Energy System Adaptations
  • ATP – CP
    • Will increase stores of ATP-CP
  • Anaerobic Glycolysis
    •  in levels of glycolytic enzymes
    • Less LA produced, more efficient Cori cycle,  LA tolerance
gains in the beginning of a program
Gains in the Beginning of a Program

Steroids

8-12 Weeks

Strength

Steroids

Hypertrophy

Progress

Neural Adaptations

Training Duration

other adaptations
Other Adaptations
  • Intramuscular Fuel Stores
    • [ATP], [CP], and [Glycogen] Increase
  • VO2max
    • Depends on training
  • Connective Tissue
    • Ligament / Tendon Strength Increases
    • Increase in connective tissue surrounding muscle fibers Increased bulk
  •  Bone Mineral Density
other adaptations1
Other Adaptations
  • Capillary Density
    • Decreases w/ intense, high intensity ST
    • No Change w/ circuit or low weight, high repetition ST
  • Mitochondrial Density
    • Decreases due to  CSA
  • Glycolytic Enzymes
    • Increase
other adaptations2
Other Adaptations
  • Hormonal Changes
    • Acute increase in Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, and Cortisol ( Gluconeogenesis)
  • Cholesterol
    •  Total Cholesterol*
    •  HDL-Cholesterol*

* (Results have been somewhat inconclusive)

specificity of training1
Specificity of Training
  • Aerobic Training:
    • IIb  IIa
    • Hypertrophy of I and IIb fibers
    • Increase in enzymes, mitochondria, & capillaries; especially in I (SO) fibers
specificity of training2
Specificity of Training
  • Strength / Power Training:
    • Hypertrophy of IIb Fibers
    •  glycolytic enzymes
    •  LA tolerance
    •  in % of CSA from type II
      • Increased contraction velocity?
strength
Strength
  • Strength is a function of:
    • Neural Factors
    • Type of fibers engaged
    • Anthropometrics/Biomechanics
    • Size of Muscle (CSA) *
frequency systems
Frequency Systems
  • Split Routine:
    • Upper / Lower Body
  • Alternate Day:
    • Total body w/ 48 hrs. rest
  • Antagonist Split Routine:
    • Agonist / Antagonist muscle on opposing days.
lifting systems
Lifting Systems
  • Percentage
  • Circuit
  • Pyramid (Progressive Resistance)
  • Super Set
  • Maximum Fatigue (Negatives)
recommendations
Recommendations
  • WARM UP / COOL DOWN !
  • Start with large muscle / multi-joint exercise and progress to single-joint / isolation exercises
  • Overload “Core” muscles last
recommendations1
Recommendations
  • ALWAYS allow 48 hours for complete recovery !
  • Start slow !
  • NEVER overload a sore muscle !