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俄 羅 斯 RUSSIA. 國 務 三 A 周 采 貞 9125103A. 俄羅斯的背景. 俄羅斯大公國建立於 12 世紀,其後被蒙古人統治兩百 餘年,而在遊牧民族汗國的統治下逐步征服及同化周 圍的帝國 。.

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俄 羅 斯 RUSSIA

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    1. 俄 羅 斯 RUSSIA 國 務 三 A 周 采 貞 9125103A

    2. 俄羅斯的背景 • 俄羅斯大公國建立於12世紀,其後被蒙古人統治兩百 餘年,而在遊牧民族汗國的統治下逐步征服及同化周 圍的帝國。 Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. • 在17世紀早期,新的羅曼諾夫王朝持續橫越西伯利亞至 太平洋的版圖擴張政策。在彼得大帝的領導之下,統治 權擴大到波羅的海,這片領土被重新命名為俄羅斯帝國 In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire.

    3. 在19世紀期間,從歐洲和亞洲取得了多數領土。隨著 第一次世界大戰中俄羅斯軍事上的慘敗及俄羅斯帝國 境內主要城市發生普遍的暴動,在1917年皇室家族終 被推翻。 During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. • 不久之後,在共產主義者列寧.弗拉德米爾掌權後成 立蘇維埃社會主義共和國聯邦。在史達林.約瑟夫手 段極其殘忍的統治下,以犧牲千萬條生命換來蘇聯提 升其國內優勢。 The Communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Josef STALIN (1928-53) strengthened Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives.

    4. 蘇維埃經濟和社會在接下來的十年為停滯時期,直到總蘇維埃經濟和社會在接下來的十年為停滯時期,直到總 書記戈巴契夫.米哈伊爾實施開放及重建政策,試圖採 用現代化的共產主義。但他的首創精神並未留心於軍事 力量,於是在1991年12月蘇維埃社會主義共和國聯邦解 體,分裂出15個獨立國家。 隨後,俄羅斯憑自身的努力奮鬥建立了民主政體,以及 市場經濟取代共產主義者控制期間內嚴格保守的社會、 政治和經濟。 The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into 15 independent republics. Since then, Russia has struggled in its efforts to build a democratic political system and market economy to replace the strict social, political, and economic controls of the Communist period.

    5. 有些發展依附著經濟的領導,近年來在普京.弗拉德米 爾的領導下,漸有全球化的力量及出現普及的民主制度 但車臣游擊隊武裝衝突仍然是俄羅斯的紛擾。 While some progress has been made on the economic front, recent years have seen a recentralization of power under Vladimir PUTIN and an erosion in nascent democratic institutions. A determined guerrilla conflict still plagues Russia in Chechnya.

    6. 莫斯科 克里姆林宮的鐘樓

    7. 地理介紹 俄羅斯 台灣 位於北亞(包含西部邊境的烏拉山脈),在歐洲與北太平洋之間,北面與北極海相鄰。 Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean 位處東亞,鄰海有東海、菲律賓海、南海及台灣海峽,在菲律賓的北方、中國東南沿海之外。 Eastern Asia, islands bordering the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait, north of the Philippines, off the southeastern coast of China 地理位置 Location 地理坐標 Geographic coordinates 60 00 N, 100 00 E 23 30 N, 121 00 E total: 20,017 km 0 km 土地邊界 Landboundaries ※邊界國(逆時針方向) 挪威、芬蘭、愛沙尼亞、拉脫維亞、白俄羅斯、立陶宛(加里寧格勒州)、波蘭、 烏克蘭、喬治亞、亞塞拜然、哈薩克斯坦、中國、蒙古和北韓。

    8. 俄羅斯 台灣 總面積total: 17,075,200 sq km 土地面積land: 16,995,800 sq km 水域面積 water: 79,400 sq km 總面積total: 35,980 sq km 土地面積land: 32,260 sq km 水域面積 water: 3,720 sq km 面積 Area ※俄羅斯總面積是台灣的474.57倍 土地面積是台灣的526.8倍 水域面積是台灣的21.34倍 烏拉爾西邊為寬廣的平原與丘陵地 西伯利亞為廣大的針葉林和寒帶草原 沿著南部的邊界地區為高地和山脈 東部地區有2/3為丘稜地形 西部為平原 地形 Terrain broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in west

    9. 俄羅斯 台灣 歐陸地區屬溫潤潮濕大陸型氣候,西伯利亞亞北極區則屬於苔原凍土氣候,氣候差異大。冬季漫長且寒冷,沿著黑海至西伯利亞為極寒;夏季溫暖;春秋二季為期甚短。 熱帶海洋性氣候 ;雨季在西南季風期間(7-8月);持續一整年多雲 氣候 Climate tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast 海岸線 37,653 km 1,566.3 km Coastline 最低點裡海 lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m 最高點艾布魯斯山 highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m 最低點南海 lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m 最高點玉山 highest point: Yu Shan 3,952 m 海拔高低 Elevation extremes

    10. 俄羅斯 台灣 廣泛的天然資源主要有石油、天然氣、煤和許多戰略上重要的礦物及木材。 天然資源 少量的煤礦、天然氣、石灰石、大理石及石棉 Natural resources wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos 土地使用 可耕地 arable land: 24% 固定收成 permanent crops: 1% 其他 other: 75% 可耕地 arable land: 7.33% 固定收成 permanent crops: 0.11% 其他 other: 92.56% Land use 台灣可耕地是俄羅斯的+16.67% 固定收成是俄羅斯的+0.89% 其他則為俄羅斯的-17.56%

    11. 俄羅斯 台灣 西伯利亞主要發展障礙是永凍土;千島群島的火山運動;堪察加半島有火山和地震;遍及西伯利亞和俄羅斯的部分會有春天洪水及夏/秋森林火災。 地震和颱風 earthquakes and typhoons 天然災害 Naturalhazards permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia 1.世界上最大的國家但座落的位 置關係卻不利於世界主要航道 連接台灣海峽及呂宋海峽有戰略位置的重要性 地理-備註 2.土地雖大但在農業方面許多區域缺 乏適當的土壤和氣候(太冷或太乾燥) Geography- note strategic location adjacent to both the Taiwan Strait and the Luzon Strait 3.艾布魯斯山是歐洲最高的頂峰 largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak

    12. 克里姆林宮(Kremlin Cathedrals)的大教堂 中間的伊凡大鐘樓

    13. 升天教堂是修道院內最大的一座教堂 1559年動工,歷時27年才完成

    14. 俄羅斯 台灣 人口 143,420,309 22,894,384 Population 俄羅斯的人口為台灣的6.26倍 人口成長率 -0.37% 0.63% Population growth rate 台灣在人口成長率方面比俄羅斯多1% 出生率 ﹤ 9.8 births/1,000 population 12.64 births/1,000 population Birth rate 死亡率 ﹥ 14.52 deaths/1,000 population 6.38 deaths/1,000 population Death rate

    15. 俄羅斯 台灣 國籍 noun: Russian(s)俄羅斯adjective: Russian noun: Chinese/Taiwanese (singular and plural)中國人/台灣人adjective: Chinese/Taiwanese Nationality 俄羅斯人占81.5%,韃靼人占3.8%,烏克蘭人占3%,楚瓦士 人佔1.2%,巴什吉爾佔0.9%, 白俄羅斯人佔0.8%,摩爾達維 亞人佔0.7%,其他佔8.1% Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%, Belarusian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1% 族群 台灣人(包含客家人)84%,中國人14%,原住民 2% Taiwanese (including Hakka) 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, aborigine 2% Ethnic groups 宗教 俄國東正教、回教,其他等 Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other 佛、儒、道教混合93%;基督教4.5%; 其它2.5% mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other2.5% Religions

    16. 俄羅斯 台灣 語言 官方語言為俄羅斯語 Russian, other 官方語言國語,閩南語,客家方言 Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects Languages definition:15歲以上能讀寫者age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99.6% male: 99.7% female: 99.5% 識字率 definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 96.1% Literacy

    17. 俄羅斯 台灣 0-14 years: 19.7% 15-64 years: 70.7% 65 years and over: 9.6% 0-14 years: 14.6% 15-64 years: 71.3% 65 years and over: 14.2% -5.1% 年齡結構 +0.6% Age structure +4.6% total population: 77.26 years male: 74.49 years female: 80.28 years 平均壽命 total population: 67.1 years male: 60.55 years female: 74.04 years Life expectancy at birth 嗯!台灣人果然比較長壽

    18. 夜色中的紅場,聖巴西爾大教堂和斯巴斯克塔 (Spassky Tower) 的美景互相暉映

    19. 軍事 俄羅斯 台灣 地面部隊(SV),海軍(VMF),空軍(VVS); 空中隊伍(VDV), 戰略火箭隊隊伍(RVSN),及不從屬三個分支—獨立作搏鬥戰的空間隊伍(KV) 陸軍,海軍(包括海軍陸戰隊),空軍,海岸巡防署 ,後備司令部,聯合後勤司令部,憲兵司令部 軍事部門 Military branches Army, Navy (including Marine Corps), Air Force, Coast Guard Administration, Armed Forces Reserve Command, Combined Service Forces Command, Armed Forces Police Command Ground Forces (SV), Navy (VMF), Air Forces (VVS); Airborne Troops (VDV), Strategic Rocket Troops (RVSN), and Space Troops (KV) are independent "combat arms," not subordinate to any of the three branches

    20. 俄羅斯 台灣 18-27歲;男性在17歲時被徵召; 2003年召兵200,000位入軍隊; 義務軍隊服役的期限是2年; 2004年8月擬定於2008年前服役年齡將減少為1年; 2003年計劃武力組成的志願軍在2010年以前要達70%,剩餘的軍人是由徵召組成 軍力-軍事年齡 Military manpower - military age 19-40歲為服兵役年齡(在2005年7月降至35歲);服務義務22個月(2005年7月開始縮短為18個月於2008年將縮為12個月)(2005年1月公佈) 19-40 years of age for military service (being lowered to 35 years of age in July 2005); service obligation 22 months (being shortened to 18 months in July 2005 and 12 months in 2008) (2005) 18-27 years of age; males are registered for the draft at 17 years of age; 200,000 conscripts were inducted into the armed forces in 2003; length of compulsory military service is 2 years; plans as of August 2004 call for reduction in mandatory service to 1 year by 2008; 2003 planning calls for volunteer servicemen to compose 70% of armed forces by 2010, with the remaining servicemen consisting of conscripts (August 2004)

    21. 俄羅斯 台灣 軍力-適合服兵役 males age 18-49: 21,049,651 males age 19-49: 4,749,537 Military manpower - fit for military service 軍力-符合年齡之人 males age 19-49: 5,883,828 males age 18-49: 35,247,049 Military manpower- availability 軍力- 每年到達軍事年齡 males: 1,286,069 males: 174,173 Military manpower - reaching military age annually

    22. 血腥房屋 沙皇保羅建造的技師城堡,後來在此被殺

    23. 凱瑟琳大帝建造的切斯馬 (Chesma) 教堂

    24. 俄羅斯娃娃 俄羅斯娃娃為木製娃娃,通常是一個可以由中間轉開最大的娃娃,裡面依序包含數個娃娃,娃娃可以有5層、7層、10層或更多,娃娃外型可以一致,也有全不相同。俄羅斯娃娃又名許願娃娃,主要是一直轉一直轉,轉到最小最小的那個娃娃,之後向它許願,並警告它,如果願望沒有實現,你就別想重見天日,接著再把它放回。如此一來,該小娃娃為了想再見到外頭世界,就會協助許運人將願望實現。

    25. The End