How claims of knowledge are justified
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How Claims of Knowledge Are Justified. Foundationalism: knowledge claims are based on indubitable foundations

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How claims of knowledge are justified
How Claims of Knowledge Are Justified

  • Foundationalism: knowledge claims are based on indubitable foundations

    • I can doubt whether there is a world, whether my reasoning can be trusted, and even if I have a body, but I cannot doubt that I am doubting (thinking). Knowledge of God and the world is based on intuitive knowledge of my own existence

    • Only sense experience can provide real knowledge of the world

Descartes

Locke


How claims of knowledge are justified1
How Claims of Knowledge Are Justified

  • Coherent: knowledge claims are justified only if they are consistent with other beliefs (including empirical beliefs) that support and complete the whole set of beliefs

  • Objections:

    • Against foundationalism: why think that any belief (intuitive or empirical) is justified?

    • Against coherentism: why think that a belief is true just because it coheres with others?


Knowledge and justified true belief
Knowledge and Justified True Belief

  • Traditionally, “x knows p” means:

    • x believes that p; p is true; x is justified in believing that p

  • Gettier problem: all three conditions could hold and still not have knowledge

    • Externalism (Plantinga): I might be warranted in my belief (if my procedure for getting the information is reliable) without being justified (i.e., I might not know how my belief is based on that procedure)

Edmund Gettier