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Splash Screen

Splash Screen

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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1:West Africa Section 2:Central and East Africa Section 3:Southern Africa Summary Chapter Menu

  3. Human-Environment Interaction The economies of Africa south of the Sahara depend more on agriculture and mineral resources than on manufacturing. Today, a number of challenges face the people of this region, including environmental damage, the spread of disease, and various ethnic conflicts.How might governments use their countries’ resources to help people? Chapter Intro 1

  4. Section 1: West Africa Geographers study how people and physical features are distributed on Earth’s surface. While some West African countries lie on the coast, others are located in the dry interior. Chapter Intro 2

  5. Section 2: Central and East Africa Cooperation and conflict among people have an effect on the Earth’s surface. In various parts of Central and East Africa, ethnic conflicts have hurt both people and the environment. Chapter Intro 2

  6. Section 3: Southern Africa Patterns of economic activities result in global interdependence. The export of valuable minerals, such as diamonds and gold, is important to the economies of southern Africa. Chapter Intro 2

  7. Chapter Intro-End

  8. Geographers study how people and physical features are distributed on Earth’s surface. Section 1-Main Idea

  9. Content Vocabulary • subsistence farm • cacao • landlocked • overgraze Academic Vocabulary • benefit • stable Section 1-Key Terms

  10. A B C Would you relocate every few years if your job required it? A. Yes B. No C.Depends on the job Section 1-Polling Question

  11. Worldwide monitoring groups are looking closely at Africa’s diamond industry. It is very likely that Ghana accepts millions of dollars’ worth of smuggled diamonds. Civil war rebels from Côte d’Ivoire use them to finance their fighting. They issue fraudulent certificates identifying the “conflict diamonds” as legitimate. Once this is done, the smuggled gems are sold legally. Section 1

  12. Nigeria Nigeria is a large, oil-rich country that has more people than any other nation in Africa south of the Sahara. Section 1

  13. Nigeria (cont.) • Nigeria is one of the largest nations in Africa south of the Sahara, and it has the largest population of any country in the region. • Ethnic conflict and political uncertainty have kept Nigeria from benefiting from its rich natural resources. Section 1

  14. Nigeria (cont.) • Although nearly all of Nigeria’s economy relies on oil production, most of the country’s people are farmers who have subsistence farms, or small plots where they grow only enough to feed their families. Section 1

  15. Nigeria (cont.) • Larger farms produce cash crops, such as rubber, peanuts, palm oil, and cacao, a tropical tree whose seeds are used to make chocolate and cocoa. • By focusing on cash crops, Nigeria has not grown enough food crops, so food must be imported. Section 1

  16. Nigeria (cont.) • Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, the four largest being the Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo. • Nigerians speak many different African languages, but they use English in business and government. Section 1

  17. Nigeria (cont.) • About 50 percent of Nigeria’s people are Muslim, 40 percent are Christian, and 10 percent practice traditional African religions. Religion in Selected Countries of West Africa Section 1

  18. Nigeria (cont.) • Although 60 percent of Nigerians still live in rural areas, many people have left their farms in search of better jobs in the cities. • The largest city is the port of Lagos. • Abuja, Nigeria’s capital, is a planned city that was built during the 1980s. Section 1

  19. Nigeria (cont.) • Nigeria is a federal republic, with powers divided between a national government and states. Section 1

  20. Nigeria (cont.) • Nigeria still faces the challenge of building a stable, or secure, democracy, and ethnic and religious differences continue to threaten national unity. • In the early 2000s, violence between Christians and Muslims in certain areas raised fears of another civil war. Section 1

  21. A B C D What is Nigeria’s major source of income? A.Cacao B.Oil exports C.Timber D.Palm oil Section 1

  22. The Sahel and Coastal West Africa West Africa consists of inland grasslands and coastal rain forests, areas with different populations and resources. Section 1

  23. The Sahel and Coastal West Africa (cont.) • Except for Mauritania, the Sahel countries—Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Chad—are landlocked, or without a sea or an ocean border. • The lack of a good transportation system and ports limits the ability of the Sahel countries to develop their valuable deposits of uranium, gold, and oil. Section 1

  24. The Sahel and Coastal West Africa (cont.) • Only grasses and small trees grow in the Sahel, which receives little rainfall. • A major farming activity is raising livestock but overgrazing, or when the animals strip areas so bare that winds blow away the soil, combined with the dryness of the area, contribute to desertification. • Populations in the Sahel are small because of the difficult living conditions. Section 1

  25. The Sahel and Coastal West Africa (cont.) • The countries of Coastal West Africa include the Cape Verde Islands and the mainland countries that stretch from Senegal to Benin. • As in other regions, rain forests here have been cleared for palm, coffee, cacao, and rubber plantations. • This has led to deforestation along the area’s densely settled coasts. Section 1

  26. The Sahel and Coastal West Africa (cont.) • As people migrate in search of work, they have settled in port cities, such as Dakar (Senegal) and Accra (Ghana). Section 1

  27. The Sahel and Coastal West Africa (cont.) • Civil wars have cost many lives and destroyed the economies in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Côte d’Ivoire; but Ghana, Senegal, and Benin have stable democracies and generally prosperous economies. Section 1

  28. A B C What language do most people of the Sahel and Coastal West Africa speak? A.French B.English C.Arabic Section 1

  29. Section 1-End

  30. Cooperation and conflict among people have an effect on the Earth’s surface. Section 2-Main Idea

  31. Content Vocabulary • sisal • habitat • cassava • genocide Academic Vocabulary • source • shift • restore Section 2-Key Terms

  32. A B Do you believe the United States should be directly involved in restoring peace to countries like Darfur and Rwanda? A. Yes B. No Section 2-Polling Question

  33. World aid groups are not always welcomed. Eritrea’s leaders are at odds over the donation of food for its people. When Eritrea was fighting for its independence from Ethiopia, aid was given to Ethiopia, not Eritrea. Eritrea’s leaders now mistrust offers of outside help, insisting they will take care of themselves. Section 2

  34. Central Africa Although rich in natural resources, Central Africa remains largely undeveloped because of a difficult environment and political conflicts. Section 2

  35. Central Africa (cont.) • The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a major source of copper, tin, and industrial diamonds. • Many of the minerals are found in the country’s interior, but thick rain forests, political unrest, and lack of roads limit the mining of the resources. • For many years, a civil war hurt efforts to develop the country’s economy. Section 2

  36. Central Africa (cont.) • The Democratic Republic of the Congo has more than 200 different ethnic groups who speak African languages, but French is the country’s official language. • Although most Congolese people live in rural areas, the capital, Kinshasa, has more than 6 million people. Section 2

  37. Central Africa (cont.) • Gabon has used its rich resources of oil, manganese, uranium, and timber to build a prosperous economy. • Cameroon produces cacao and coffee for export. Section 2

  38. Central Africa (cont.) • Both Congo and the Central African Republic have remained in poverty because of weak governments. • Equatorial Guinea has benefited from its oil resources. • Likewise, the island country of São Tomé and Principé have shifted to oil production instead of exporting cacao and coconuts. Section 2

  39. A B C D Why has the Democratic Republic of Congo not been able to take full advantage of its rich resources? A.Lack of roads B.Political unrest C.Thick rain forests D.All of the above Section 2

  40. Southern East Africa The highlands in the southern part of East Africa attract people and support thriving farms. The region has experienced much conflict, however. Section 2

  41. Southern East Africa (cont.) • Tanzania, the largest of the southern East African countries, has many ethnic groups, each with its own language, but most people speak Swahili. • Friendly relations among the groups plus a stable government have prevented conflict in Tanzania since independence. Section 2

  42. Southern East Africa (cont.) • Most Tanzanians farm or herd livestock. Export crops are coffee and sisal, a plant fiber used to make rope and twine. • The island of Zanzibar, off Tanzania’s coast, supplies a spice called cloves. Section 2

  43. Southern East Africa (cont.) • National parks in Tanzania help to protect the habitats of the country’s wildlife. • A habitat is the type of environment in which a particular animal species lives. • Serengeti National Park attracts many ecotourists, or people who travel to another country to view its natural wonders and wildlife. Section 2

  44. Southern East Africa (cont.) • Most of Kenya’s people live in the highlands in the center of the country. • Nairobi is the country’s capital and the largest city in East Africa. • Mombasa, on the Indian Ocean coast, is a large and busy port. Section 2

  45. Southern East Africa (cont.) • Most Kenyans are farmers who raise corn, bananas, sweet potatoes, and cassava, a plant whose roots are ground to make porridge. • Some larger farms raise coffee and tea for export. The country also has a large system of national parks to help protect its wildlife. Section 2

  46. Southern East Africa (cont.) • Kenya has many different ethnic groups, with the Kikuyu people making up one-fourth of the population. • Most Kenyans live in rural areas, but many have moved to the cities in search of a better life. Section 2

  47. Southern East Africa (cont.) • After independence from Britain in 1963, Kenya prospered despite rule by one political party. • Recently, Kenyans have made advances toward democracy, but a disputed presidential election in 2007 led to violent riots. • The violence ended when the rival candidates agreed to share power in the new government. Section 2

  48. Southern East Africa (cont.) • Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi are landlocked countries in the highlands of East Africa. • Rich soil and plentiful rainfall are good for both subsistence farms and plantations. Crops are bananas, cassava, potatoes, corn, grains, coffee, cotton, and tea. Section 2

  49. Southern East Africa (cont.) • Rwanda and Burundi have the highest population densities in Africa south of the Sahara. • Uganda was ruled for much of the 1970s by a cruel dictator, Idi Amin, but in recent years, it has become more democratic and prosperous. Section 2

  50. Southern East Africa (cont.) • About 80 percent of the people in both Rwanda and Burundi are Hutu, but the Tutsi ran the governments and economies for many years. • In the 1990s, civil war erupted, including genocide, or the deliberate murder of a group of people because of their race of culture. Section 2