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The Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire

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The Ottoman Empire

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  1. The Ottoman Empire What was the impact of the break up of the Ottoman Empire after World War I?

  2. Interactive Maps of the Ottoman Empire from the 1300s to 1900s.

  3. Essential Questions How is an empire, specifically the Ottoman Empire, like a jigsaw puzzle? Where was the Ottoman Empire located and how did its location influence trade? What caused the Ottoman Empire to dissolve and why did conflicts arise from its destruction?

  4. Early Empire 1300 and 1400’s • The Ottoman Empire began in the early 1300’s in what is now modern day Turkey. It was led by a group calling themselves the Ottoman Turks. • Through war and conquest, the empire grew as former territories of the Byzantine Empire were defenseless from invasion. • In less than 200 years, the Ottoman Empire would possess territories in Asia and Europe. • Mehmed II was the greatest of the early rulers of the Ottoman Empire. Under his leadership, the Ottomans truly became an empire.

  5. Religion and the Ottoman Empire • The Ottoman Empire was led by the Turks who were Muslims. • The Ottoman Empire’s territories were home to followers of many different religions, including Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. • In conquered territories, people of faiths different than that of the Turks, were allowed to practice their religion if they paid a tax. • The Turks believed this would lead to its subjects being more passive or peaceful toward their occupiers. The taxes collected helped finance projects in territories and helped pay for the defense of the empire.

  6. The Ottoman Empire and Trade • The location of the empire placed it right in the middle of trade routesbetween East Asia and Western Europe. • The Turks used the importance of the location of their empire to tax and control the trade goods moving through their empire. • In addition to overland trade routes, the empire’s possessions also placed them in place to control sea routes including parts of the Mediterranean Seas. • The Ottoman Empire built a large navy to enforce its control of the trade being conducted in the waters the empire controlled.

  7. Mehmed II1451-1481

  8. Map of the Ottoman Empire (1300 to 1699)

  9. Early Ottoman Soldiers

  10. 1500’s -1600’s • Suleyman the Magnificent was the greatest leader of the empire at this time. He conquered territories in northern Africa, southwest Asia, and southeastern Europe. • The empire reached its greatest extent under Suleyman and his successor. The empire became rich through conquest and taxes collected from its subjects. • After the death of Suleyman, the Ottoman empire faced increasing pressure from Western Europe. • Due to wars and weak leadership, the empire began to loseterritory and control of overland shipping routes.

  11. Suleyman the Magnificent

  12. The Ottoman Empire late 17th Century

  13. Ottoman Soldiers

  14. Movie about the Early ottoman empire

  15. 1700s to World War I • The Ottoman Empire began its decline in the early 1700s. • Outside pressure, failed wars with other empires, and nationalist movements in Ottoman territories severely weakened the empire’s economy and military. • In the years leading up to World War I, the Ottoman Empire lost territories to the German, Russian, French, and British Empires. • A failed war against Greece and a failing economy resulted in hundreds of thousands of Turkish students and revolutionaries to call for an end to the empire and the creation of a democratic Turkish nation. • The Ottoman leadership was also troubled by the growing conflicts between European empires that would result in World War I.

  16. What was left of the Ottoman Empire heading into World War I

  17. Nationalist Movement in Turkey led by the Young Turks (early 1900s)

  18. Turkish Soldiers Fighting the Greeks (late 1800s)

  19. World War I • Initially, the Ottoman Empire hoped to stay out of World War I. • However, pressure from European nations (both from friends and enemies) and fear of losing territory pushed the empire into the war. • The Ottomans joined the war on the side of the Germans and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. • The Ottomans and their allies were defeated by the Allied Powers led by the British, French, and American armies. • After World War I, the empire was in ruins and the majority of its territories were seized by victorious European powers.

  20. Movie about the decline of the ottoman empire

  21. Pictures from the Ottoman Empire during World War I

  22. Ottoman Soldier --- World War I

  23. Arab Nationalist Fighters Who Allied With The British Against The Ottomans During World War I.

  24. Armenian Nationalist Fighters During World War I

  25. After World War I • After World War I, land of the former Ottoman Empire was divided among the European countries of: • France--Syria, Lebanon, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia • Britain(England)--Egypt, Sudan, Jordan, Palestine • Italy--Libya

  26. Territory Lost To European Powers After World War I

  27. After World War I (Ethnic Conflict) • As the European countries divided the land, they drew boundaries that were not based on ethnic groups or historical boundaries. • This causes some ethnic groups to be separated by boundaries while grouping other groups together. This caused future conflicts – especially after oil is discovered in the region making control of the region even more valuable. • In some areas, conflicts broke out between a variety of ethnic groups struggling to create nations of their own.

  28. The Creation of Turkey • After the end of World War I, the Ottoman Empire consisted mainly of the country of modern day Turkey. • Turkish protestors and a strong nationalist movement pushed for the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. • The Ottoman Empire was dissolved in 1922 and the modern nation of Turkey was created. • The new nation of Turkey was a democracy led by former army officer Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who was one of the leaders of the nationalist movement in Turkey. • Ataturk would prove to be a strong leader who instituted many changes in Turkish culture and helped build his nation.

  29. The Last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Leaving Turkey

  30. Ataturk

  31. Map Of Modern Day Turkey

  32. Turn to your neighbor… • Why would the discovery of natural resources cause more interest in the region? • What potential conflicts could it cause?

  33. Your turn… • Create an acrostic poem for the Ottoman Empire. • Focus on: • the origins of the Ottoman empire. • the geographic expansion of the Ottoman empire. • the impact of the Ottoman Empire with regard to trade and religion on the region. • the importance of the break up of the Ottoman Empire after World War I.