THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

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  1. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1300-1700 *Located in Asia Minor

  2. BYZANTIUM RENAMED • Byzantium  Greek city-state renamed Constantinople in 330 A.D. –location amazing for trade! • Became capital city of Byzantine Empire – trade continued, cultural diffusion was immense

  3. CRUSADERS & TURKS FIGHT • Crusades fought in Byzantine & invasions by Turks & Mongols common by 13th Century • Turkish people loyal to their tribes & clans, but not to a central government • Wanted to take down Crusaders & break up the Empire to take over

  4. GHAZIS • Many Anatolian Turks saw themselves as GHAZIS – warriors for Islam (like Crusaders) • Followed strict code of conduct • Raided territories • Muslim (believed in Islam)

  5. OSMAN & OTTOMANS • OSMAN most successful ghazi & a Muslim • His followers  OTTOMANS • Attempts to build unified empire by conquering & controlling lands in Anatolia (Turkey) • Uses gunpowder • Among 1st to use cannons & muskets

  6. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF OSMAN • Officially takes over Byzantium area & establishes OTTOMAN EMPIRE in 1299 • Kind ruler to those he conquered  Allowed local rulers to remain in place • Improved lives of peasants • Protected religious preferences – follow your own religion • Taxed people fairly (even non-Muslims) • Rulers called SULTANS – “one with power”

  7. RISE OF TIMUR THE LAME (TAMERLANE) • TIMUR THE LAME: warrior from Asia • Conquered Russia, Persia, northern India, & burned Baghdad to ground • Butchered people in New Delhi & made pyramid of skulls • Halted expansion of Ottoman Empire until 1405

  8. MEHMET II • Timur’s son, MEHMET II new sultan • 1451 - builds fleet & massive army to attack Constantinople (wanted control of Bosporus Strait for trade & prosperity) • 1453 – captured Constantinople & renamed it ISTANBUL new capital of their empire • “Give me Constantinople!”

  9. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF MEHMET II • Mehmet now called MEHMET THE CONQUEROR • HAGIA SOPHIA (famous church) became a mosque • Islam religion became unifying force • BUT religious toleration encouraged & diverse population inhabited the city

  10. HAGIA SOPHIA

  11. SELIM THE GRIM • Overthrew father & murdered brothers • Killed all nephews & own kids, but 1 son • Crazy guy, but effective! • Defeated Safavids of Persia & conquered Mecca, Medina, & Cairo (holy cities & intellectual cities) • Happened at same time Cortez takes over Aztecs

  12. SULEIMAN I • 1520-1566 – Suleiman (“the lawgiver”) – built strong empire militarily, economically, & socially – GOLDEN AGE • Gained more land in eastern Mediterranean, northern African ports, trade routes inside Africa, & central Europe • Efficient government structure w/social organization (held for 600 years!)

  13. SULEIMAN’S EMPIRE • 20,000 personal slaves • 30,000 JANISSARIES: force of people from conquered Christian territories • DEVSHIRME policy: training boys as soldiers

  14. SULEIMAN’S ACHIEVEMENTS • Freedom of worship • Binding the Ottoman Empire together • Simplified taxation system • Reduced government interference (bureacracy) • “Renaissance Man” • Art & Literature flourished

  15. SELIM II • Suleiman killed best son & drove away another  3rd incompetent son, SELIM II inherited throne • Ran corrupt government & it continued in family through generations • Defeated militarily in 1571 by Spain & Italy

  16. WHAT HAPPENED TO THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE? • Became customary to kill off good sons & cut off rest from education  produced long line of weak rulers & ruined empire • Empire crumbled slowly & finally dissolved with creation of Turkey after World War I