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HOLLYWOOD

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  1. HOLLYWOOD Stars & Studios

  2. THE HOLLYWOOD STUDIOS • 1915-25: transition from Trust to STUDIO SYSTEM • “Studio Era” typified by: • Picture palaces • Movie audience that included all classes • Standardized production of feature-length films (1½ hrs) • Concentration of production in Hollywood • OLIGOPOLY & VERTICAL INTEGRATION

  3. OLIGOPOLY • A few large firms control an entire industry • Due to high cost of film production • Feature-length films were expensive • Salaries increased, esp. for stars • Production values increased • Sound added to costs of equipment & production

  4. OLIGOPOLY • Costs of distribution, picture palaces & converting to sound • Small companies began to merge in order to compete • By late 1920s, 8 companies controlled 91% of box-office • These companies known as 8 Majors

  5. VERTICAL INTEGRATION • Company controls product from production to retail sale • BIG 5 • MGM, PARAMOUNT, FOX, WARNER BROS., & RKO • Vertically integrated: production, distribution & exhibition

  6. VERTICAL INTEGRATION • LITTLE 3 • COLUMBIA, UNIVERSAL, & UNITED ARTISTS • Not totally vertically integrated • Columbia & Universal in production & distribution, but no theaters • United Artists only distributed films

  7. “THE DREAM FACTORY” • DIVISION OF LABOR • Labor highly specialized & efficient, becoming highly unionized • THE CONTRACT SYSTEM • Most workers under contract for 5-7 years • Renewable by studio every 6 months • Studios maintained prop & costume depts • Filmed on own lots

  8. “THE DREAM FACTORY” • THE “STUDIO LOOK” • Consistent labor, props, settings resulted in "Studio Look“ • Studios tended to build their films around their stars

  9. Paramount Stars Marlene Dietrich

  10. Paramount Stars The Marx Bros Mae West

  11. Paramount Stars Bing Crosby, Dorothy Lamour & Bob Hope

  12. Fleischer Bros. Studio Popeye

  13. Fleischer Bros. Studio Superman

  14. Fleischer Bros. Studio Betty Boop

  15. Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer

  16. MGM Stars Greta Garbo

  17. MGM Stars Clark Gable Spencer Tracy

  18. MGM Movies Tarzan the Ape Man (1932)

  19. MGM Movies Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938)

  20. Hal Roach Studio Laurel & Hardy

  21. Hal Roach Studio Our Gang

  22. MGM Animation

  23. MGM Animation Tex Avery’s Wolfie and Red

  24. 20th Century-Fox

  25. 20th Century-Fox Stars Sonja Henie Shirley Temple

  26. 20th Century-Fox Stars Betty Grable Tyrone Power

  27. 20th-Century Fox Movies Charlie Chan at the Olympics (1937)

  28. Warner Bros.

  29. Warner Bros. Stars Humphrey Bogart

  30. Warner Bros. Stars Bette Davis

  31. Warner Bros. Animation

  32. RKO Movies

  33. Disney Animation Mickey Mouse Donald Duck

  34. Disney Animation Snow White (1937)

  35. Universal

  36. Universal Serials

  37. Walter Lantz Studio Woody Woodpecker Chilly Willy

  38. Universal Movies Abbott & Costello

  39. Universal Horror Movies

  40. Universal Horror Movies

  41. Columbia

  42. Columbia Movies Claudette Colbert Clark Gable Frank Capra’s It Happened One Night (1934)

  43. Columbia Movies Batman & Robin

  44. Columbia Shorts The Three Stooges

  45. United Artists Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin & DW Griffith

  46. Monogram Movies Federal Bullets (1937)

  47. Monogram Stars The Bowery Boys

  48. Republic

  49. Republic Movies